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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=mind-body therapies[MeSH Terms]
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The effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on the illness perception and Psychological Symptoms in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Wed, 2019-03-13 06:42
Related Articles

The effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on the illness perception and Psychological Symptoms in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2019 Feb;34:139-144

Authors: Dalili Z, Bayazi MH

Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on the Illness Perception (IP) and Psychological Symptoms (PS) for Patients in primary care with an active symptom of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The present design is a clinical trial that uses the pre-test and post-test design with a control group. MBCT as an evidence-based psychotherapeutic intervention and Mindfulness-Based Intervention (MBI), is an 8-week course developed for patients with relapsing depression that integrates mindfulness meditation practices and cognitive therapy. This semi-experimental study was conducted using a pretest-posttest and control group. Diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis of patients with RA were all patients with RA who visited the clinic of Jam Rheumatology Centers and met other inclusion criteria in Mashhad in the spring of 2018. Therefore, 28 patients were randomly selected from the diagnostic group. They were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group (14 individuals in each group) and then were post-tested after two months. The data were collected using the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21 scores) which were completed by the participants. The data were analyzed using repeated measures MANOVA. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the mean scores of pre-test (before MBI) and post-test (after MBI) in the experimental group compared to the control group, and MBCT had a significant effect on the perception of the disease and the psychological syndrome in the experimental group compared to the control group. Therefore, it can be concluded that MBCT is effective on IP and psychological syndrome and can be used as an MBI method to reduce the illness perceptions in people with RA. The future researches with longer pursuing period's efficacy continuation are suggested.

PMID: 30712718 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Contrasting implicit and explicit measures of attitudes to complementary and alternative medicines.

Wed, 2019-03-13 06:42
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Contrasting implicit and explicit measures of attitudes to complementary and alternative medicines.

Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2019 Feb;34:105-108

Authors: Green JA, Zerhouni O, Gauchet A

Abstract
We aimed to contrast implicit and explicit measures of attitudes towards complementary and alternative medicines, to determine which best predicts medicine adherence. 117 participants from Université Grenoble Alpes completed online measures of attitudes towards complementary and alternative medicines, including implicit measures (Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP); Implicit Association Test (IAT)), and explicit measures (Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), modified explicit AMP); and self-reported medicine adherence (Medication Adherence Scale (MARS); Probabilistic Medication Adherence Scale (ProMAS)). AMP measures of implicit and explicit attitudes predicted beliefs toward medicine and medicines adherence. Models including implicit measures were stronger than models with explicit measures alone. Further, the AMP predicted beliefs toward medicine as well as medicine adherence, and the AMP was a stronger predictor compared to the IAT, although the IAT predicted adherence. These preliminary findings suggest that 'hot' implicit attitudes are a useful predictor of people's medicine choices, and that the AMP outperforms the IAT.

PMID: 30712711 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Yoga in primary health care: A quasi-experimental study to access the effects on quality of life and psychological distress.

Wed, 2019-03-13 06:42
Related Articles

Yoga in primary health care: A quasi-experimental study to access the effects on quality of life and psychological distress.

Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2019 Feb;34:1-7

Authors: Ponte SB, Lino C, Tavares B, Amaral B, Bettencourt AL, Nunes T, Silva C, Mota-Vieira L

Abstract
BACKGROUND: and purpose: Yoga is growing in popularity, but its benefits and integration into primary care remain uncertain. Here, we determine yoga effects on quality of life and psychological distress, and evaluate the feasibility of introducing yoga at primary care level.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental study, with an intervention (n = 49) and a control group (n = 37). Yoga group underwent 24-weeks program of one-hour sessions. Our primary endpoint was quality of life and psychological distress, as well as satisfaction level and adherence rate.
RESULTS: Participants reported a significant improvement in all domains of quality of life and a reduction of psychological distress. Linear regression analysis showed that yoga significantly improves psychological quality of life (p = 0.046).
CONCLUSION: Yoga in primary care is feasible, safe and has a satisfactory adherence, as well as a positive effect on psychological quality of life of participants.

PMID: 30712710 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Perceived stress mediates the relationship between mindfulness and negative affect variability: A randomized controlled trial among middle-aged to older adults.

Tue, 2019-03-12 06:40
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Perceived stress mediates the relationship between mindfulness and negative affect variability: A randomized controlled trial among middle-aged to older adults.

Stress Health. 2019 Feb;35(1):89-97

Authors: Colgan DD, Klee D, Memmott T, Proulx J, Oken B

Abstract
Despite the interest in mindfulness over the past 20 years, studies have only recently begun to examine mindfulness in older adults. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate pretreatment to post-treatment change in negative affect variability (NAV) following a mindfulness training among 134 mildly stressed, middle-aged to older adults. The secondary aim was to assess if the effects of mindfulness training on NAV would be partially explained by pretreatment to post-treatment reductions in perceived stress, a trend that would be congruent with several stress models. In this randomized control trial, participants were assigned to either a 6-week mindfulness meditation training programme or to a wait list control. Ecological momentary assessment, a data capturing technique that queries about present moment experiences in real time, captured NAV. Mixed-model ANOVAs and a path analysis were conducted. Participants in the mindfulness meditation training significantly reduced NAV when compared with wait list control participants. Further, there was a significant indirect group effect on reductions in NAV through change in perceived stress. Few studies have tested mechanisms of action, which connect changes that occur during mindfulness training with psychological outcomes in older adults. Understanding the mechanisms by which mindfulness enhances well-being may optimize interventions.

PMID: 30461202 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Visuospatial imagery in healthy individuals with different hypnotizability levels.

Tue, 2019-03-12 06:40
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Visuospatial imagery in healthy individuals with different hypnotizability levels.

Neurosci Lett. 2019 01 18;690:158-161

Authors: Incognito O, Menardo E, Di Gruttola F, Tomaiuolo F, Sebastiani L, Santarcangelo EL

Abstract
Hypnotizability is a psychophysiological trait associated with morpho-functional brain differences. Since also cerebellar peculiarities have been reported in individuals with different hypnotizability levels and the cerebellar function is relevant to spatial imagery, the present study was aimed at investigating possible hypnotizability-related differences in the ability of spatial imagery. Highly (highs, N = 31), low (lows, N = 17) and medium (mediums, N = 16) hypnotizable participants (classified by Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, form A) of both genders were submitted to a test of mental rotation, which requires the integrity of both executive and cerebellar structures. In order to disentangle the role of the cerebellum from that of executive circuits as much as possible, visuospatial and verbal working memory tests, which mainly reflect executive processes, were also performed. Healthy highs exhibited higher scores of mental rotation ability compared to mediums in the absence of significant differences in visual-spatial and verbal working memory. Lows reported intermediate scores not significantly different from both highs' and mediums'. Different cognitive strategies were observed in the three groups as the correlations between mental rotation, visuospatial and verbal working memory were different in highs, mediums and lows. In conclusion, present findings represent the first report of hypnotizability-related differences in a mental rotation task, which is relevant to several cognitive functions.

PMID: 30342994 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Subjective and physiological response to emotions in temporal lobe epilepsy and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.

Tue, 2019-03-12 06:40
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Subjective and physiological response to emotions in temporal lobe epilepsy and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.

J Affect Disord. 2019 02 01;244:46-53

Authors: Kotwas I, Micoulaud-Franchi JA, Khalfa S, McGonigal A, Bastien-Toniazzo M, Bartolomei F

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are conditions frequently associated with dysfunction in emotional regulation leading to increased risk of affective disorders. This study investigates emotional processing with an objective measure of emotional reactivity in patients with TLE and patients with PNES.
METHODS: 34 patients with TLE and 14 patients with PNES were evaluated on skin conductance responses (SCR) to emotions induced by short films and compared to 34 healthy controls. An attention and a suppression condition were performed while viewing the films.
RESULTS: The both groups of patients disclosed lower SCR to emotions compared to controls, mainly in suppression condition. While TLE patients had lower SCR in attention condition than controls for fear, sadness and happiness, PNES had lower SCR only for happiness. In suppression condition, both had lower SCR than controls except for peacefulness in both groups and sadness in PNES. Subjective evaluations revealed that both patient's groups scored a higher intensity for sadness than controls in attention and lower for in fear and disgust in suppression only in TLE.
LIMITATIONS: The sample size in the PNES group and the lack of a control group with similar levels of mood symptoms limited the interpretation of our results.
CONCLUSION: As no correlation were found between SCR to emotions and scores of affective disorders, this pattern of responses might be underpinned by specific pathophysiological and cognitive mechanisms related to TLE and to PNES. Thus, therapeutic approaches targeting emotional autonomic responses can be of interest in the management of these conditions.

PMID: 30312840 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Imagery-Focused Cognitive Therapy (ImCT) for Mood Instability and Anxiety in a Small Sample of Patients with Bipolar Disorder: a Pilot Clinical Audit.

Tue, 2019-03-12 06:40
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Imagery-Focused Cognitive Therapy (ImCT) for Mood Instability and Anxiety in a Small Sample of Patients with Bipolar Disorder: a Pilot Clinical Audit.

Behav Cogn Psychother. 2018 Nov;46(6):706-725

Authors: Hales SA, Di Simplicio M, Iyadurai L, Blackwell SE, Young K, Fairburn CG, Geddes JR, Goodwin GM, Holmes EA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Despite the global impact of bipolar disorder (BD), treatment success is limited. Challenges include syndromal and subsyndromal mood instability, comorbid anxiety, and uncertainty around mechanisms to target. The Oxford Mood Action Psychology Programme (OxMAPP) offered a novel approach within a cognitive behavioural framework, via mental imagery-focused cognitive therapy (ImCT).
AIMS: This clinical audit evaluated referral rates, clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction with the OxMAPP service.
METHOD: Eleven outpatients with BD received ImCT in addition to standard psychiatric care. Mood data were collected weekly from 6 months pre-treatment to 6 months post-treatment via routine mood monitoring. Anxiety was measured weekly from start of treatment until 1 month post-treatment. Patient feedback was provided via questionnaire.
RESULTS: Referral and treatment uptake rates indicated acceptability to referrers and patients. From pre- to post-treatment, there was (i) a significant reduction in the duration of depressive episode relapses, and (ii) a non-significant trend towards a reduction in the number of episodes, with small to medium effect size. There was a large effect size for the reduction in weekly anxiety symptoms from assessment to 1 month follow-up. Patient feedback indicated high levels of satisfaction with ImCT, and underscored the importance of the mental imagery focus.
CONCLUSIONS: This clinical audit provides preliminary evidence that ImCT can help improve depressive and anxiety symptoms in BD as part of integrated clinical care, with high patient satisfaction and acceptability. Formal assessment designs are needed to further test the feasibility and efficacy of the new ImCT treatment on anxiety and mood instability.

PMID: 29983124 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Graded motor imagery for women at risk for developing type I CRPS following closed treatment of distal radius fractures: a randomized comparative effectiveness trial protocol.

Tue, 2019-03-12 06:40
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Graded motor imagery for women at risk for developing type I CRPS following closed treatment of distal radius fractures: a randomized comparative effectiveness trial protocol.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2018 Jun 26;19(1):202

Authors: McGee C, Skye J, Van Heest A

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Distal radius fractures (DRF) account for nearly one-fifth of all fractures in older adults, and women experience them 5× as often as men. Most DRF occur with low impact injuries to the wrist with an outstretched hand, and are often managed via closed treatment and cast immobilization. Women sustaining a DRF are at risk for upper limb immobility, sensorimotor changes, edema and type I complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Since CRPS onset is likely influenced by alterations in the brain's somatosensory region, a rehabilitation intervention, Graded Motor Imagery (GMI), aims to restore cortical representation, including sensory and motor function, of the affected limb. To date, there are no studies on the use of GMI in reducing risk of or preventing the onset of type I CRPS in women with DRF treated with cast immobilization. Due to a higher likelihood of women with this injury developing type I CRPS, it is important to early intervention is needed.
METHODS/DESIGN: This article describes a six-week randomized comparative effectiveness trial, where the outcomes of a modified GMI program (mGMI) + standard of care (SOC) group (n = 33) are compared to a SOC only control group (n = 33). Immediately following cast immobilization, both groups participate in four 1-h clinic-based sessions, and a home program for 10 min three times daily until cast removal. Blinded assessments occur within 1 week of cast immobilization (baseline), at three weeks post cast immbolization, cast removal, and at three months post cast removal. The primary outcomes are patient reported wrist/hand function and symptomology on the Patient Rated Wristand Hand Evaluation, McGill Pain Questionnaire, and Budapest CRPS Criteria. The secondary outcomes are grip strength, active range of motion as per goniometry, circumferential edema measurements, and joint position sense.
DISCUSSION: This study will investigate the early effects of mGMI + SOC hand therapy compared to SOC alone. We intend to investigate whether an intervention, specifically mGMI, used to treat preexisiting pain and motor dysfunction might also be used to mitigate these problems prior to their onset. If positive effects are observed, mGMI + SOC may be considered for incorporation into early rehabilitation program.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with identifier NCT02957240 (Approval date: April 20, 2017).

PMID: 29940926 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Increases in motor cortical excitability during mirror visual feedback of a precision grasp is influenced by vision and movement of the opposite limb.

Tue, 2019-03-12 06:40
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Increases in motor cortical excitability during mirror visual feedback of a precision grasp is influenced by vision and movement of the opposite limb.

Neurosci Lett. 2018 08 10;681:31-36

Authors: Jegatheeswaran G, Vesia M, Isayama R, Gunraj C, Chen R

Abstract
Unimanual grasp movements with mirrored visual feedback (MVF) can improve function and increase excitability of primary motor cortex (M1) ipsilateral to the moving hand. However, no study to date has examined the contribution of vision and movement of the opposite hand during an object-directed precision grasp. In this study, we tested 15 healthy individuals in three conditions: MVF (vision + motor), Movement (motor component), and Action Observation (vision component). We hypothesized that unimanual grasp movements with MVF increases the excitability and reduces intracortical inhibition of the M1 ipsilateral to the moving hand. We found increased excitability in the right primary motor cortex (M1) ipsilateral to the moving right hand for MVF movements compared to Rest (Baseline). In contrast, no change was found in right M1 with only movement of the right hand or observation of object-directed precision grasp with left hand. We also found a reduction in short-interval intracortical inhibition in MVF movements compared to baseline. These findings suggest that excitability in M1 during an object-directed precision grasp is mediated by the combination of viewing the movement performed and performing the movement from the opposite hand.

PMID: 29787788 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Biofeedback-Based, Videogame Balance Training in Autism.

Tue, 2019-03-12 06:40
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Biofeedback-Based, Videogame Balance Training in Autism.

J Autism Dev Disord. 2018 01;48(1):163-175

Authors: Travers BG, Mason AH, Mrotek LA, Ellertson A, Dean DC, Engel C, Gomez A, Dadalko OI, McLaughlin K

Abstract
The present study examined the effects of a visual-based biofeedback training on improving balance challenges in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-nine youth with ASD (7-17 years) completed an intensive 6-week biofeedback-based videogame balance training. Participants exhibited training-related balance improvements that significantly accounted for postural-sway improvements outside of training. Participants perceived the training as beneficial and enjoyable. Significant moderators of training included milder stereotyped and ritualistic behaviors and better starting balance. Neither IQ nor BMI moderated training. These results suggest that biofeedback-based balance training is associated with balance improvements in youth with ASD, most robustly in those with less severe repetitive behaviors and better starting balance. The training was perceived as motivating, further suggesting its efficacy and likelihood of use.

PMID: 28921103 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Family accommodation in somatoform disorders-its effects on diagnosis and management: A case report.

Tue, 2019-03-12 06:40
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Family accommodation in somatoform disorders-its effects on diagnosis and management: A case report.

Asian J Psychiatr. 2017 Jun;27:147-148

Authors: Subramanian K, Manohar H, Menon V

PMID: 28558890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Biological markers for the effects of yoga as a complementary and alternative medicine.

Sat, 2019-03-09 08:35
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Biological markers for the effects of yoga as a complementary and alternative medicine.

J Complement Integr Med. 2019 Feb 07;16(1):

Authors: Mohammad A, Thakur P, Kumar R, Kaur S, Saini RV, Saini AK

Abstract
From the last few decades, there are increasing incidences of disorders like premature aging, cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, and Alzheimer's disease In addition to medication, researchers have found that yoga, a mind-body therapy, can be used as an alternative medicine. Yoga combines specific physical postures, breathing techniques, relaxation and meditation that improve mental and physical health of the body. The purpose of this review is to collate the research evidences claiming health benefits of performing traditional yogic practices. What are the biological and other reliable indicators to suggest that doing asanas, pranayama, and meditation could reduce or treat wide range of life style disorders are discussed. Importantly, these indicators are otherwise used to assess the severity of disorders. In many of the study it has been shown that yoga improves the redox health of body whose imbalance has been well proven to cause many health complications. The impact of yoga on neurodegenerative diseases have revealed that it reverses memory loss, reduce anxiety, depression and stress, the biological indicators of disease. However, most studies have several limitations and therefore further research into yoga is needed to validate these findings.

PMID: 30735481 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Hypnotherapy for insomnia: A randomized controlled trial comparing generic and disease-specific suggestions.

Sat, 2019-03-09 08:35
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Hypnotherapy for insomnia: A randomized controlled trial comparing generic and disease-specific suggestions.

Complement Ther Med. 2018 Dec;41:231-239

Authors: Lam TH, Chung KF, Lee CT, Yeung WF, Yu BY

Abstract
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Hypnotherapy is commonly used for treating insomnia, but a definite conclusion regarding its safety and effectiveness is unavailable due to a lack of adverse event monitoring and comparison between generic and disease-specific hypnotic suggestions in previous studies.
DESIGN: Randomized controlled, participant-blind, parallel-group with subject recruitment after trial registry.
INTERVENTIONS: Sixty participants were randomized to receive 4-week once-weekly 1-hour hypnotherapy with disease-specific suggestions (using counter-hyperarousal hypnotic exercise and screen visualization technique targeted at insomnia-related anxieties) or generic suggestions (using thought distraction technique and suggestions for self-confidence and self-care enhancement).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was sleep efficiency (SE) derived from 1-week sleep diary at weeks 4, 6 and 9. Secondary outcomes included other sleep-diary parameters, Insomnia Severity Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Sheehan Disability Index. Treatment expectancy, adverse events (AEs), and subjective experiences were obtained after hypnotherapy sessions 2 and 4.
RESULTS: Mixed linear modeling showed that time effect was significant for most variables. Within-group effect size of sleep-diary-derived SE from baseline to follow-up ranged from 0.70 to 0.90 for disease-specific suggestions (mean difference: 8.5-10.4%); for generic suggestions, it was 0.65-0.69 (mean difference: 6.8-8.3%); however, no significant between-group difference was found. Discontinuation rate was 10%, report of unpleasantness varied from 5.5 to 7.4%, while the incidence of AEs ranged from 37.0 to 51.8%, depending on session content.
CONCLUSION: Hypnotherapy using disease-specific and generic suggestions produced similar improvements in sleep and daytime functioning. AEs were common but mostly mild. The finding raises doubts about the value of disease-specific suggestions in hypnotherapy for insomnia.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: This clinical trial was registered on 23 May 2014 at the University of Hong Kong Clinical Trials Registry as "Hypnotherapy for insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial" (HKUCTR-1874).

PMID: 30477846 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Electromyogram Biofeedback in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Sat, 2019-03-09 08:35
Related Articles

Electromyogram Biofeedback in Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Complement Med Res. 2017;24(1):33-39

Authors: Baumueller E, Winkelmann A, Irnich D, Weigl M

Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIM: Electromyogram (EMG) biofeedback is used in chronic pain but its effectiveness in patients with fibromyalgia is unclear. The objective of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of EMG biofeedback in patients with fibromyalgia.
METHODS: Patients were recruited from a waiting list at the fibromyalgia day care clinic at the University Hospital Munich. The study intervention comprised 14 sessions of EMG biofeedback during 8 weeks in addition to the usual care. The control intervention was usual care alone. Assessments were scheduled before intervention (T0), after intervention (T1), and 3 months after the end of intervention (T2). The primary outcome measure was the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Secondary outcome measures included additional patient-oriented measures and the pressure-pain threshold in the trapezius muscles. Effectiveness was analyzed by significance tests and standardized effect sizes (ES).
RESULTS: 36 patients completed the study. EMG biofeedback did not improve the health status (FIQ, T1: p = 0.95, ES = 0.02; T2: p = 0.52, ES = 0.26). Among the secondary outcome measures, only the pressure-pain threshold at the trapezius muscles showed an improvement in the intervention group (T1: p = 0.016, ES = 0.84).
CONCLUSION: EMG biofeedback showed no health status improvement in patients with fibromyalgia.

PMID: 28192782 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

The impact on health status in short- and long-terms of a novel and non-orthodox real-world COPD rehabilitation effort in rural India: an appraisal.

Fri, 2019-03-08 08:31
Related Articles

The impact on health status in short- and long-terms of a novel and non-orthodox real-world COPD rehabilitation effort in rural India: an appraisal.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2018;13:3313-3319

Authors: Bhattacharyya P, Ghosh R, Saha D, Chakraborty B, Bhattacharyya P, Sarma M, Mazumdar S, Chatterjee K, Chowdhury A

Abstract
Background: Rehabilitation has been an integral part of management of COPD. Since the implementation of the standard rehabilitation protocol is hardly possible in the rural developing world, aiming to make a feasible alternate effort may be worthwhile.
Methods: COPD patients diagnosed through spirometry were first stabilized with 6 weeks of uniform pharmacotherapy. Subsequently, they were subjected to a curriculum-based intensive single-session intervention with education, bronchial hygiene, and exercise training. The latter involved whole body exercise, pursed lip breathing, and diaphragmatic exercise. The participants continued to practice the exercises under real-world encouragement and supervision from trained volunteers. The impact was appraised in terms of change in health status through COPD assessment test (CAT) score measurements at stabilization, and after 6 weeks and 1 year of the intensive training and education.
Results: At stabilization, 70 out of 96 selected COPD subjects (73%) turned up (with mean age 62±9 years and mean FEV1 as 1.16±0.39 L) showing improvement as per CAT score (p=0.0001) from pharmacotherapy. After practicing the imparted education and training for 6 weeks, all these 70 participants had further significant improvement in the health status (n=70, p=0.00001). This improvement, been reinforced and supervised, continued to last even at 1 year (n=54, p=0.0001).
Conclusion: The self-managed practice of a single-session education and training under real-world supervision can bring forth significant long-term improvement in the health status of COPD sufferers. Such simple and feasible intervention may substitute formal COPD rehabilitation programs in resource constraint situations.

PMID: 30410321 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Decoding attentional states for neurofeedback: Mindfulness vs. wandering thoughts.

Fri, 2019-03-08 08:31
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Decoding attentional states for neurofeedback: Mindfulness vs. wandering thoughts.

Neuroimage. 2019 01 15;185:565-574

Authors: Zhigalov A, Heinilä E, Parviainen T, Parkkonen L, Hyvärinen A

Abstract
Neurofeedback requires a direct translation of neuronal brain activity to sensory input given to the user or subject. However, decoding certain states, e.g., mindfulness or wandering thoughts, from ongoing brain activity remains an unresolved problem. In this study, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to acquire brain activity during mindfulness meditation and thought-inducing tasks mimicking wandering thoughts. We used a novel real-time feature extraction to decode the mindfulness, i.e., to discriminate it from the thought-inducing tasks. The key methodological novelty of our approach is usage of MEG power spectra and functional connectivity of independent components as features underlying mindfulness states. Performance was measured as the classification accuracy on a separate session but within the same subject. We found that the spectral- and connectivity-based classification approaches allowed discriminating mindfulness and thought-inducing tasks with an accuracy around 60% compared to the 50% chance-level. Both classification approaches showed similar accuracy, although the connectivity approach slightly outperformed the spectral one in a few cases. Detailed analysis showed that the classification coefficients and the associated independent components were highly individual among subjects and a straightforward transfer of the coefficients over subjects provided near chance-level classification accuracy. Thus, discriminating between mindfulness and wandering thoughts seems to be possible, although with limited accuracy, by machine learning, especially on the subject-level. Our hope is that the developed spectral- and connectivity-based decoding methods can be utilized in real-time neurofeedback to decode mindfulness states from ongoing neuronal activity, and hence, provide a basis for improved, individualized mindfulness training.

PMID: 30317018 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

A systematic review of the psychological factors that influence neurofeedback learning outcomes.

Fri, 2019-03-08 08:31
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A systematic review of the psychological factors that influence neurofeedback learning outcomes.

Neuroimage. 2019 01 15;185:545-555

Authors: Kadosh KC, Staunton G

Abstract
Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based neurofeedback represents the latest applied behavioural neuroscience methodology developed to train participants in the self-regulation of brain regions or networks. However, as with previous biofeedback approaches which rely on electroencephalography (EEG) or related approaches such as brain-machine interface technology (BCI), individual success rates vary significantly, and some participants never learn to control their brain responses at all. Given that these approaches are often being developed for eventual use in a clinical setting (albeit there is also significant interest in using NF for neuro-enhancement in typical populations), this represents a significant hurdle which requires more research. Here we present the findings of a systematic review which focused on how psychological variables contribute to learning outcomes in fMRI-based neurofeedback. However, as this is a relatively new methodology, we also considered findings from EEG-based neurofeedback and BCI. 271 papers were found and screened through PsycINFO, psycARTICLES, Psychological and Behavioural Sciences Collection, ISI Web of Science and Medline and 21 were found to contribute towards the aim of this survey. Several main categories emerged: Attentional variables appear to be of importance to both performance and learning, motivational factors and mood have been implicated as moderate predictors of success, while personality factors have mixed findings. We conclude that future research will need to systematically manipulate psychological variables such as motivation or mood, and to define clear thresholds for a successful neurofeedback effect. Non-responders need to be targeted for interventions and tested with different neurofeedback setups to understand whether their non-response is specific or general. Also, there is a need for qualitative evidence to understand how psychological variables influence participants throughout their training. This will help us to understand the subtleties of psychological effects over time. This research will allow interventions to be developed for non-responders and better selection procedures in future to improve the efficacy of neurofeedback.

PMID: 30315905 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Aromatherapy Relieves Nausea in ED Patients.

Fri, 2019-03-08 08:31
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Aromatherapy Relieves Nausea in ED Patients.

Am J Nurs. 2018 06;118(6):69

Authors: Rosenberg K

PMID: 29794930 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Neurofeedback Control of the Human GABAergic System Using Non-invasive Brain Stimulation.

Fri, 2019-03-08 08:31
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Neurofeedback Control of the Human GABAergic System Using Non-invasive Brain Stimulation.

Neuroscience. 2018 06 01;380:38-48

Authors: Koganemaru S, Mikami Y, Maezawa H, Ikeda S, Ikoma K, Mima T

Abstract
Neurofeedback has been a powerful method for self-regulating brain activities to elicit potential ability of human mind. GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a tool that can evaluate the GABAergic system within the primary motor cortex (M1) using paired-pulse stimuli, short intracortical inhibition (SICI). Herein we investigated whether neurofeedback learning using SICI enabled us to control the GABAergic system within the M1 area. Forty-five healthy subjects were randomly divided into two groups: those receiving SICI neurofeedback learning or those receiving no neurofeedback (control) learning. During both learning periods, subjects made attempts to change the size of a circle, which was altered according to the degree of SICI in the SICI neurofeedback learning group, and which was altered independent of the degree of SICI in the control learning group. Results demonstrated that the SICI neurofeedback learning group showed a significant enhancement in SICI. Moreover, this group showed a significant reduction in choice reaction time compared to the control group. Our findings indicate that humans can intrinsically control the intracortical GABAergic system within M1 and can thus improve motor behaviors by SICI neurofeedback learning. SICI neurofeedback learning is a novel and promising approach to control our neural system and potentially represents a new therapy for patients with abnormal motor symptoms caused by CNS disorders.

PMID: 29649513 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Expertise-Level-Dependent Functionally Plastic Changes During Motor Imagery in Basketball Players.

Fri, 2019-03-08 08:31
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Expertise-Level-Dependent Functionally Plastic Changes During Motor Imagery in Basketball Players.

Neuroscience. 2018 06 01;380:78-89

Authors: Zhang LL, Pi YL, Shen C, Zhu H, Li XP, Ni Z, Zhang J, Wu Y

Abstract
Motor imagery is the mental process of rehearsing or simulating a given action without overt movements. The aim of the present study is to examine plastic changes in relevant brain areas during motor imagery with increasing expertise level. Subjects (novices, intermediate and elite players) performed motor imagery of basketball throws under two experimental conditions (with-ball and without-ball). We found that all basketball players exhibited better temporal congruence (between motor imagery and motor execution) and higher vividness of motor imagery than novices. The vividness of motor imagery was higher for the with-ball than for the without-ball conditions in all three subject groups. The results from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) showed three different patterns of cortical activation. Activation in the left middle frontal gyrus increased and that in the left supplementary motor area decreased with increasing levels of motor expertise. Importantly, brain activation in the left postcentral gyrus was the highest in the intermediate players compared to both novices and elite players. For the elite group, these three areas showed higher activation in the without-ball condition than the with-ball condition, while the opposite trend was found in intermediate players. Our findings suggest that the level of motor expertise may be related to high-order brain functions that are linked to different activation patterns in different brain areas.

PMID: 29634999 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

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