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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=mind-body therapies[MeSH Terms]
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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF HYPNOTHERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF CHINESE PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS.

Wed, 2019-05-01 08:11
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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF HYPNOTHERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF CHINESE PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS.

Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2018 Jul-Sep;66(3):315-330

Authors: Chiu L, Lee HW, Lam WK

Abstract
This is a prospective randomized, controlled study of patients suffering from anxiety, depression, or mixed anxiety-depressive disorder attending a hypnotherapy clinic for 8 weeks. Participants were assessed with various clinical scales and randomly assigned to either the study or control group. The study group received 5 to 7 sessions of hypnotherapy through the 8-week period, whereas the control group received conventional psychiatric treatment. All patients' clinical conditions were reassessed at the end of the 8th week. Comparing study and control groups at the end of the 8th week, there was improvement in the study group in the scores of an array of clinical scales. Such satisfactory results illustrate the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in relieving anxiety and depressive symptoms.

PMID: 29856286 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

HYPNOTIZABILITY AND PAIN MODULATION: A Body-Mind Perspective.

Wed, 2019-05-01 08:11
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HYPNOTIZABILITY AND PAIN MODULATION: A Body-Mind Perspective.

Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2018 Jul-Sep;66(3):265-281

Authors: Varanini M, Balocchi R, Carli G, Paoletti G, Santarcangelo EL

Abstract
The study investigated whether the cardiac activity and cognitive-emotional traits sustained by the behavioral inhibition/activation system (BIS/BAS) may contribute to hypnotizability-related pain modulation. Nociceptive stimulation (cold-pressor test) was administered to healthy participants with high (highs) and low (lows) hypnotizability in the presence and absence of suggestions for analgesia. Results showed that heart rate increased abruptly at the beginning of nociceptive stimulation in all participants. Then, only in highs heart rate decreased for the entire duration of hand immersion. During stimulation with suggestions of analgesia, pain threshold negatively correlated with heart rate. BIS/BAS activity partially accounted for the observed hypnotizability-related differences in the relation between cardiac interoception and pain experience.

PMID: 29856285 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

THE MCCARTHY TEAPOT TEST.

Wed, 2019-05-01 08:11
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THE MCCARTHY TEAPOT TEST.

Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2018 Jul-Sep;66(3):308-314

Authors: McCarthy P

Abstract
Expectancy has often been declared to be the single most important factor in the success or failure of any hypnotic intervention. Given this truism that expectancy is so crucial, this article shows how a potential patient's expectancy can be influenced and lowered or raised by the words and actions of the therapist. The essence of this innovative, simple, and quick method is that it is an expectancy-enhancement procedure that masquerades as a hypnotizability assessment. What makes this method powerful is the author's emphasis on the theatrical components of therapist performance (it even includes acting instructions). No one fails this test.

PMID: 29856284 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

BILATERAL ELECTRODERMAL ACTIVITY IN THE ACTIVE-ALERT HYPNOTIC INDUCTION.

Wed, 2019-05-01 08:11
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BILATERAL ELECTRODERMAL ACTIVITY IN THE ACTIVE-ALERT HYPNOTIC INDUCTION.

Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2018 Jul-Sep;66(3):282-297

Authors: Kasos K, Kekecs Z, Kasos E, Szekely A, Varga K

Abstract
Shifts in hemispheric dominance were previously proposed to play a role in hypnosis. Participants (N = 32) were exposed to an active-alert hypnosis induction and a music-control condition while electrodermal activity was registered bilaterally, providing information on alterations in hemispheric dominance. The results suggest that highly hypnotizable participants show a shift to right-sided and low hypnotizable participants demonstrated a shift to left-sided electrodermal dominance in response to the induction, whereas no change in laterality is present in the control condition. Additionally, the authors found that self-reported hypnosis experiences were also associated with a shift in laterality. These results underline the importance of the shift to right hemispheric activity in hypnosis and underscore the importance of hemispheric changes in shaping subjective experience.

PMID: 29856283 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

FLOW AND HYPNOTIZABILITY IN A COLLEGE STUDENT POPULATION.

Wed, 2019-05-01 08:11
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FLOW AND HYPNOTIZABILITY IN A COLLEGE STUDENT POPULATION.

Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2018 Jul-Sep;66(3):331-342

Authors: Bowers J, Na H, Elkins G

Abstract
The concept of "flow" refers to a state of heightened attention and concentration in a current task. Benefits of entering a flow state may include the ability to optimize performance by reducing conscious cognitive processing. Various theories have suggested that flow is a state of consciousness similar to that of hypnosis. The present study addresses the relationship between flow and hypnotizability. In a college sample, a significant correlation was found between flow experience and hypnotizability, suggesting that those high in hypnotizability are more likely to experience flow states during hypnosis. In addition, results suggest that hypnosis may be used to develop higher frequency of flow states, especially in those with low dispositional flow.

PMID: 29856282 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

USE OF NEUROFEEDBACK AND MINDFULNESS TO ENHANCE RESPONSE TO HYPNOSIS TREATMENT IN INDIVIDUALS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: Results From a Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial.

Wed, 2019-05-01 08:11
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USE OF NEUROFEEDBACK AND MINDFULNESS TO ENHANCE RESPONSE TO HYPNOSIS TREATMENT IN INDIVIDUALS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: Results From a Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial.

Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2018 Jul-Sep;66(3):231-264

Authors: Jensen MP, Battalio SL, Chan JF, Edwards KA, Day MA, Sherlin LH, Ehde DM

Abstract
This pilot study evaluated the possibility that 2 interventions hypothesized to increase slower brain oscillations (e.g., theta) may enhance the efficacy of hypnosis treatment, given evidence that hypnotic responding is associated with slower brain oscillations. Thirty-two individuals with multiple sclerosis and chronic pain, fatigue, or both, were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 interventions thought to increase slow wave activity (mindfulness meditation or neurofeedback training) or no enhancing intervention, and then given 5 sessions of self-hypnosis training targeting their presenting symptoms. The findings supported the potential for both neurofeedback and mindfulness to enhance response to hypnosis treatment. Research using larger sample sizes to determine the generalizability of these findings is warranted.

PMID: 29856281 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Effects of progressive muscle relaxation training on sleep and quality of life in patients with pulmonary resection.

Wed, 2019-05-01 08:11
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Effects of progressive muscle relaxation training on sleep and quality of life in patients with pulmonary resection.

Sleep Breath. 2018 09;22(3):695-702

Authors: Aksu NT, Erdogan A, Ozgur N

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The inadequate quality and nature of sleep is a commonly reported problem among hospitalized patients. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of progressive muscle relaxation training program on sleep quality, sleep state, pain, and quality of life in patients who underwent pulmonary resection.
METHODS: Our study was planned as a single-blind prospective randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted on 26 patients who underwent surgery by using posterolateral thoracotomy method. Progressive muscle relaxation training were given to the training group with a therapist two times a day. Sleep quality, daytime sleeping, pain, and quality of life were respectively evaluated in the morning before the surgery and 1 week after the surgery by using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, visual analogue scale, and Euro Quality of Life-5D (EQ-5D).
RESULTS: There is no significant difference between preoperative groups in the total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Euro Quality of Life-5D, and visual analogue scale scores (p > 0.05). The intra-group change in the study group showed a significant deterioration in the Euro Quality of Life-5D and visual analogue scale scores (p < 0.05). There was a significant deterioration in the total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, EQ-5D, and visual analogue scale scores in the control group (p < 0.05). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Euro Quality of Life-5D scores showed significant improvements in the relaxation training group after treatment at 1 week (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Progressive muscle relaxation prevents a decline in patient-reported sleep quality following pulmonary resection.

PMID: 29290053 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Effectiveness of inspiratory muscle training on sleep and functional capacity to exercise in obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized controlled trial.

Wed, 2019-05-01 08:11
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Effectiveness of inspiratory muscle training on sleep and functional capacity to exercise in obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized controlled trial.

Sleep Breath. 2018 09;22(3):631-639

Authors: Souza AKF, Dornelas de Andrade A, de Medeiros AIC, de Aguiar MIR, Rocha TDS, Pedrosa RP, de Lima AMJ

Abstract
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on sleep and functional capacity to exercise in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
METHODS: This is a controlled, randomized, double-blind study conducted in 16 OSA patients divided into two groups: training (IMT: n = 8) and placebo-IMT (P-IMT: n = 8). IMT was conducted during 12 weeks with a moderate load (50-60% of maximal inspiratory pressure-MIP), while P-IMT used a load < 20% of MPI. Total daily IMT time for both groups was 30 min, 7 days per week, twice a day.
RESULTS: There was no difference comparing IMT to P-IMT group after training for lung function (p > 0.05) and respiratory muscle strength (p > 0.05). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2Max) was not significantly different between IMT and P-IMT group (mean difference - 1.76, confidence interval (CI) - 7.93 to 4.41, p = 0.71). The same was observed for the other ventilatory and cardiometabolic variables measured (p > 0.05). A significant improvement in sleep quality was found when Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) values of IMT and P-IMT group after training were compared (mean difference: 3.7, confidence interval 95% (CI95%) 0.6 to 6.9, p = 0.02) but no significant changes were seen in daytime sleepiness between both groups after the intervention (mean difference: 3.4, CI 95%: - 3.3 to 10.0; p = 0.29).
CONCLUSION: According to these results, 12 weeks of moderate load IMT resulted in improved sleep quality, but there were no significant repercussions on functional capacity to exercise or excessive daytime sleepiness.

PMID: 29124630 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Alterations of agency in hypnosis: A new predictive coding model.

Tue, 2019-04-30 08:09
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Alterations of agency in hypnosis: A new predictive coding model.

Psychol Rev. 2019 01;126(1):133-152

Authors: Martin JR, Pacherie E

Abstract
Hypnotic suggestions can lead to altered experiences of agency, reality, and memory. The present work is primarily concerned with alterations of the sense of agency (SoA) following motor suggestions. When people respond to the suggestion that their arm is rising up all by itself, they usually have a feeling of passivity for their action. The mechanisms leading to such alterations of the SoA are still controversial. We propose a theoretical model based on the framework of predictive coding: The view that the brain constantly generates hypotheses that predict sensory input at varying levels of abstraction and minimizes prediction errors either by updating its prior hypotheses-perceptual inference-or by modifying sensory input through action-active inference. We argue that suggested motor behavior and the experience of passivity accompanying it can be accounted for in terms of active inference. We propose that motor suggestions optimize both proprioceptive predictions and actual proprioceptive evidence through attentional modulation. The comparison between predicted and actual sensory evidence leads to highly precise prediction errors that call for an explanation. The motor suggestion readily supplies such an explanation by providing a prior of nonagency to the subject. We present this model in detail and discuss how it relates to, and differs from, other recent models of hypnosis. We compare its predictions with the predictions derivable from these other models. We also discuss the potential application of our predictive account to reality and memory alterations in hypnosis and offer an explanation of interindividual differences in hypnotic suggestibility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

PMID: 30604989 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Efficacy of individual and group hypnotherapy in irritable bowel syndrome (IMAGINE): a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

Tue, 2019-04-30 08:09
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Efficacy of individual and group hypnotherapy in irritable bowel syndrome (IMAGINE): a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Jan;4(1):20-31

Authors: Flik CE, Laan W, Zuithoff NPA, van Rood YR, Smout AJPM, Weusten BLAM, Whorwell PJ, de Wit NJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been used primarily in patients with refractory symptoms in specialised departments and delivered on an individual basis. We aimed to test the hypothesis that hypnotherapy would be more effective than educational supportive therapy, and that group hypnotherapy would be non-inferior to individual hypnotherapy for patients with IBS referred from primary and secondary care.
METHODS: We did a multicentre randomised controlled trial (IMAGINE) in 11 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients with IBS, aged 18-65 years, who were referred from primary or secondary care were randomly allocated (3:3:1) in blocks of six using a computer-based random number table procedure by staff not involved in the treatment to receive six sessions of individual or group hypnotherapy or group educational supportive therapy (control group). The primary outcome was adequate relief of IBS symptoms, with responders defined as patients who reported adequate relief when asked once weekly on three or four occasions in 4 consecutive weeks. We compared hypnotherapy (both groups) with control in the intention-to-treat population (excluding individuals subsequently found to be ineligible for enrolment), and assessed non-inferiority of group hypnotherapy versus individual hypnotherapy in the per-protocol population (with a non-inferiority margin of 15%) at 3 months and 12 months. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN22888906, and is completed.
FINDINGS: Between May 31, 2011, and April 6, 2016, 494 patients referred for psychological treatment for IBS were assessed for eligibility, of whom 354 were randomly allocated to the three groups: 150 to individual hypnotherapy, 150 to group hypnotherapy, and 54 to educational supportive therapy. After exclusion of individuals subsequently found to be ineligible for enrolment, 142 patients in the individual hypnotherapy group, 146 in the group hypnotherapy group, and 54 in the control group were included in the intention-to-treat population. Of these, 22 (15%) patients in the individual hypnotherapy group, 22 (15%) in the group hypnotherapy group, and 11 (20%) in the control group dropped out before or during therapy. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the adequate response rate was 40·8% (95% CI 31·7-50·5) in the individual hypnotherapy group, 33·2% (24·3-43·5) in the group hypnotherapy group, and 16·7% (7·6-32·6) in the control group at 3 months. At 12 months, 40·8% (31·3-51·1) of patients in the individual hypnotherapy group, 49·5% (38·8-60·0) of patients in the group hypnotherapy group, and 22.6% (11·5-39·5) of patients in the control group reported adequate relief. Hypnotherapy was more effective than control at 3 months (odds ratio 2·9, 95% CI 1·2-7·4, p=0·0240) and 12 months (2·8, 1·2-6·7, p=0·0185). In the per-protocol analysis, 49·9% (39·2-60·6) in the individual hypnotherapy group and 42·7% (32·3-53·8) in the group hypnotherapy group had adequate relief at 3 months, and 55·5% (43·4-67·1) of individual and 51·7% (40·2-63·0) of group hypnotherapy patients reported adequate relief at 12 months. Group hypnotherapy was therefore non-inferior to individual hypnotherapy. Eight unexpected serious adverse reactions (six in the individual hypnotherapy group and two in the group hypnotherapy group) were reported, most of which were cancer or inflammatory bowel disease, and were judged by the medical ethics committee as not being related to the therapy.
INTERPRETATION: Hypnotherapy should be considered as a possible treatment for patients with IBS in primary and secondary care. Furthermore, group therapy could allow many more patients to be treated for the same cost.
FUNDING: None.

PMID: 30473202 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Management of anxiety and depression in haemodialysis patients: the role of non-pharmacological methods.

Tue, 2019-04-30 08:09
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Management of anxiety and depression in haemodialysis patients: the role of non-pharmacological methods.

Int Urol Nephrol. 2019 Jan;51(1):113-118

Authors: Gerogianni G, Babatsikou F, Polikandrioti M, Grapsa E

Abstract
Anxiety and depression in patients undergoing haemodialysis can be reduced by a variety of treatment methods, including pharmacological therapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy, regular exercise and relaxation techniques, such as Benson's relaxation method and acupressure treatment. Additionally, intradialytic exercise training programmes have a positive effect on patients' physical and psychological functioning. Moreover, social support from family and social environment, spirituality and religiosity, tele- nursing programmes and participation in network support groups frequently lead to a reduction of anxiety and depressive symptoms in these people. Finally, the provision of education and information to dialysis patients by renal professionals and a systematic psychiatric evaluation of these individuals can lead to early diagnosis and treatment of depressive symptoms.

PMID: 30456545 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

[Benefits of meditation on the hypertensive adult].

Tue, 2019-04-30 08:09
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[Benefits of meditation on the hypertensive adult].

Rev Med Suisse. 2018 Sep 12;14(618):1588-1592

Authors: Stancu C, Werner C, Pechère-Bertschi A, Zisimopoulou S

Abstract
The prevalence of high blood pressure is increasing and expanding preventive and treatment measures may be useful. Some data in the literature suggest that meditation can play a role not only in stress management but also in blood pressure control and cardiovascular disease prevention. Mechanisms involved may be based on the regulation of emotional and biological responses to stress, by regulation of the autonomous nervous system. This approach is available to everyone interested, has no adverse effects and is not related to any particular religious beliefs.

PMID: 30226655 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Building mindfulness bottom-up: Meditation in natural settings supports open monitoring and attention restoration.

Tue, 2019-04-30 08:09
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Building mindfulness bottom-up: Meditation in natural settings supports open monitoring and attention restoration.

Conscious Cogn. 2018 03;59:40-56

Authors: Lymeus F, Lindberg P, Hartig T

Abstract
Mindfulness courses conventionally use effortful, focused meditation to train attention. In contrast, natural settings can effortlessly support state mindfulness and restore depleted attention resources, which could facilitate meditation. We performed two studies that compared conventional training with restoration skills training (ReST) that taught low-effort open monitoring meditation in a garden over five weeks. Assessments before and after meditation on multiple occasions showed that ReST meditation increasingly enhanced attention performance. Conventional meditation enhanced attention initially but increasingly incurred effort, reflected in performance decrements toward the course end. With both courses, attentional improvements generalized in the first weeks of training. Against established accounts, the generalized improvements thus occurred before any effort was incurred by the conventional exercises. We propose that restoration rather than attention training can account for early attentional improvements with meditation. ReST holds promise as an undemanding introduction to mindfulness and as a method to enhance restoration in nature contacts.

PMID: 29438869 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

[A phenomenological approach of bodily experience].

Tue, 2019-04-30 08:09
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[A phenomenological approach of bodily experience].

Rev Med Suisse. 2018 Feb 07;14(593):317-319

Authors: Wykretowicz H, Saraga M

Abstract
Phenomenology suggests that the clinician should not only focus on the patient's body as it can be objectively grasped, and not only on the patient's inner, psychic world, notably the representations and fears about the body, but should also explore the patient's body as it is experienced and lived, what we call the « bodily experience ».

PMID: 29412523 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Compassion-focused self-help for skin conditions in individuals with insecure attachment: a pilot evaluation of acceptability and potential effectiveness.

Tue, 2019-04-30 08:09
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Compassion-focused self-help for skin conditions in individuals with insecure attachment: a pilot evaluation of acceptability and potential effectiveness.

Br J Dermatol. 2018 02;178(2):e122-e123

Authors: Krasuska M, Millings A, Lavda AC, Thompson AR

PMID: 28869774 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Time perception and the experience of agency in meditation and hypnosis.

Sat, 2019-04-27 08:04
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Time perception and the experience of agency in meditation and hypnosis.

Psych J. 2019 Mar;8(1):36-50

Authors: Lush P, Dienes Z

Abstract
Mindfulness meditation and hypnosis are related in opposing ways to awareness of intentions. The cold control theory of hypnosis proposes that hypnotic responding involves the experience of involuntariness while performing an actually intentional action. Hypnosis therefore relies upon inaccurate metacognition about intentional actions and experiences. Mindfulness meditation centrally involves awareness of intentions and is associated with improved metacognitive access to intentions. Therefore, mindfulness meditators and highly hypnotizable people may lie at opposite ends of a spectrum with regard to metacognitive access to intention-related information. Here we review the theoretical background and evidence for differences in the metacognition of intentions in these groups, as revealed by chronometric measures of the awareness of voluntary action: the timing of an intention to move (Libet's "W" judgments) and the compressed perception of time between an intentional action and its outcome ("intentional binding"). We review these measures and critically evaluate their proposed connection to the experience of volition and sense of agency.

PMID: 30912626 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

A game-based neurofeedback training system to enhance cognitive performance in healthy elderly subjects and in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

Sat, 2019-04-27 08:04
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A game-based neurofeedback training system to enhance cognitive performance in healthy elderly subjects and in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

Clin Interv Aging. 2019;14:347-360

Authors: Jirayucharoensak S, Israsena P, Pan-Ngum S, Hemrungrojn S, Maes M

Abstract
Introduction: This study examines the clinical efficacy of a game-based neurofeedback training (NFT) system to enhance cognitive performance in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy elderly subjects. The NFT system includes five games designed to improve attention span and cognitive performance. The system estimates attention levels by investigating the power spectrum of Beta and Alpha bands.
Methods: We recruited 65 women with aMCI and 54 healthy elderly women. All participants were treated with care as usual (CAU); 58 were treated with CAU + NFT (20 sessions of 30 minutes each, 2-3 sessions per week), 36 with CAU + exergame-based training, while 25 patients had only CAU. Cognitive functions were assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery both before and after treatment.
Results: NFT significantly improved rapid visual processing and spatial working memory (SWM), including strategy, when compared with exergame training and no active treatment. aMCI was characterized by impairments in SWM (including strategy), pattern recognition memory, and delayed matching to samples.
Conclusion: In conclusion, treatment with NFT improves sustained attention and SWM. Nevertheless, NFT had no significant effect on pattern recognition memory and short-term visual memory, which are the other hallmarks of aMCI. The NFT system used here may selectively improve sustained attention, strategy, and executive functions, but not other cognitive impairments, which characterize aMCI in women.

PMID: 30863028 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Concentrative (Sahaj Samadhi) meditation expands subjective time.

Sat, 2019-04-27 08:04
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Concentrative (Sahaj Samadhi) meditation expands subjective time.

Psych J. 2019 Mar;8(1):28-35

Authors: Singh A, Srinivasan N

Abstract
Previous studies have demonstrated the effect of mindfulness meditation on subjective experience of time. Task difficulty influenced subjective experience of time with larger subjective expansion of time among meditators with a more difficult task. It is not clear whether the effect would generalize to concentrative meditation training. Hence, in the present study, using a temporal bisection task, we investigated the effect of task difficulty (with two discrimination ratios of short and long durations) on subjective experience of time in long-term concentrative (Sahaj Samadhi) meditators and non-meditators. The results provide evidence for subjective expansion of time among long-term concentrative meditators, which is in line with the previous findings with mindfulness meditators. Similar to the earlier study with mindfulness meditators, we also found expansion of time for concentrative meditators only in the difficult task condition where attentional demands are high and less attentional resources are available for processing time. The findings suggest that subjective expansion of time is most likely a general effect of attentional enhancement irrespective of the type of meditation practice.

PMID: 30788909 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Awareness of the passage of time and self-consciousness: What do meditators report?

Sat, 2019-04-27 08:04
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Awareness of the passage of time and self-consciousness: What do meditators report?

Psych J. 2019 Mar;8(1):51-65

Authors: Droit-Volet S, Dambrun M

Abstract
What do humans mean when they say that time passes quickly or slowly? In this article, we try to respond to this question on the basis of our studies on the judgment of the passage of time and its links with the judgment of physical durations. The awareness of the passage of time when consciousness is altered by meditation is also discussed. A dissociation is then made among the "self-time perspective," the "self-duration" (internal duration), and the "world-duration" (external duration). A link is also established between the self-time perspective and the "narrative self," on one hand, and the self-duration and the "minimal self," on the other hand, that is confirmed in our qualitative analysis of testimonials of four meditators. The awareness of self-duration is thus related to the awareness of the embodied self. When the sense of self is altered and the consciousness of the body is lower, then the subjective experience of internal time changes. However, the mechanisms allowing the disappearance of the self with the feeling of being outside time during meditation remains to be elucidated.

PMID: 30740922 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

When meditators avoid counting during time production things get interesting.

Sat, 2019-04-27 08:04
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When meditators avoid counting during time production things get interesting.

Psych J. 2019 Mar;8(1):17-27

Authors: Glicksohn J, Berkovich-Ohana A

Abstract
Time production (TP) with or without chronometric counting both instantiates and reflects the working of an internal clock, as originally posited by Treisman. We exploit the fact that a number of experienced meditators, who had previously participated in a study wherein TP was assessed, and who had employed chronometric counting then, would be coming back to the lab to participate in a second study. We specifically requested that they should not employ chronometric counting this time, thus allowing us to contrast TP with and without counting. We report a qualitative difference between TP implemented by counting and TP without counting: The first is a linear function of target duration (T), while the second is not, and entails a discontinuity in the function. Requesting meditators not to engage in chronometric counting, and thereby forcing them to rely instead on other cues (sensory, bodily, etc.), might well be an appropriate context in which to observe such a discontinuity in TP.

PMID: 30358176 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

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