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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=mind-body therapies[MeSH Terms]
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Sparse Representation-Based Extreme Learning Machine for Motor Imagery EEG Classification.

Fri, 2019-03-22 07:04
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Sparse Representation-Based Extreme Learning Machine for Motor Imagery EEG Classification.

Comput Intell Neurosci. 2018;2018:9593682

Authors: She Q, Chen K, Ma Y, Nguyen T, Zhang Y

Abstract
Classification of motor imagery (MI) electroencephalogram (EEG) plays a vital role in brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. Recent research has shown that nonlinear classification algorithms perform better than their linear counterparts, but most of them cannot extract sufficient significant information which leads to a less efficient classification. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called FDDL-ELM, which combines the discriminative power of extreme learning machine (ELM) with the reconstruction capability of sparse representation. Firstly, the common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm is adopted to perform spatial filtering on raw EEG data to enhance the task-related neural activity. Secondly, the Fisher discrimination criterion is employed to learn a structured dictionary and obtain sparse coding coefficients from the filtered data, and these discriminative coefficients are then used to acquire the reconstructed feature representations. Finally, a nonlinear classifier ELM is used to identify these features in different MI tasks. The proposed method is evaluated on 2-class Datasets IVa and IIIa of BCI Competition III and 4-class Dataset IIa of BCI Competition IV. Experimental results show that our method achieved superior performance than the other existing algorithms and yielded the accuracies of 80.68%, 87.54%, and 63.76% across all subjects in the above-mentioned three datasets, respectively.

PMID: 30510569 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

The quiet eye is sensitive to exercise-induced physiological stress.

Fri, 2019-03-22 07:04
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The quiet eye is sensitive to exercise-induced physiological stress.

Prog Brain Res. 2018;240:35-52

Authors: Wilson MR, Webb A, Wylie LJ, Vine SJ

Abstract
The current study sought to explore attentional mechanisms underpinning visuomotor performance degradation following acute exercise. Ten experienced basketball players took free throws while wearing mobile eye tracking glasses, before and after performing a bout of cycling exercise. Shooting accuracy was measured using a 6-point scoring system, and quiet eye duration (the final fixation to a target) was adopted as an objective measure of top-down attentional control. Four intensities of exercise (based on an initial ramp test) were performed in a counterbalanced order: rest, moderate, heavy and severe. The four intensities resulted in participants reaching 52±4%, 58±4%, 76±6% and 86±5% of their heart rate max, respectively. Performance and quiet eye were only significantly impaired (19% and 45% drops, respectively) between pre- and post-intervention at the severe intensity workload level. Additionally, exercise-induced changes in quiet eye predicted 33% of the subsequent change in performance accuracy. The results suggest that attentional disruptions may at least partially explain why sporting skills break down under acute fatigue. Implications for training to mitigate against these impairments are discussed.

PMID: 30390839 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Prior self-control exertion and perceptions of pain and motivation during a physically effortful task.

Fri, 2019-03-22 07:04
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Prior self-control exertion and perceptions of pain and motivation during a physically effortful task.

Prog Brain Res. 2018;240:19-34

Authors: Boat R, Atkins T, Davenport N, Cooper S

Abstract
Performing a task requiring self-control may impair performance on a subsequent physical task also requiring self-control. The mechanisms explaining why self-control is reduced following prior use currently remain unclear. This study, therefore, explored whether exerting self-control (a) reduces performance, (b) increases perceptions of pain, and (c) reduces motivation during a subsequent, unrelated physical task that requires self-control. In a within-subject design, 55 individuals completed an easy (congruent) Stroop task (no self-control) or a difficult (incongruent) Stroop task (self-control). Participants were then required to perform a lower limb endurance task (i.e., a "wall-sit") until volitional exhaustion and their perception of pain and motivation were recorded during the task. When participants completed the difficult Stroop task, wall-sit time to volitional exhaustion was reduced (133.33±70.28s) compared to when they completed the easy Stroop task (150.49±69.97s, P=0.04). Motivation during the early stages of the wall-sit task explained the reductions in performance (P<0.001). The results suggest that motivation to perform task goals may be an important explanatory mechanism behind performance decrements on physical tasks following the exertion of self-control.

PMID: 30390831 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Brain mechanisms that underlie music interventions in the exercise domain.

Fri, 2019-03-22 07:04
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Brain mechanisms that underlie music interventions in the exercise domain.

Prog Brain Res. 2018;240:109-125

Authors: Karageorghis CI, Bigliassi M, Guérin SMR, Delevoye-Turrell Y

Abstract
In this chapter we review recent work from the realms of neuroscience and neuropsychology to explore the brain mechanisms that underlie the effects of music on exercise. We begin with an examination of the technique of electroencephalography (EEG), which has proven popular with researchers in this domain. We go on to appraise work conducted with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and then, looking more toward the future, we consider the application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to study brain hemodynamics. The experimental findings expounded herein indicate that music has the potential to guide attention toward environmental sensory cues and prevent internal, fatigue-related signals from entering focal awareness. The brain mechanisms underlying such effects are primarily associated with the downregulation of theta waves across the cortex surface, reduction of communication among somatosensory regions, and increased activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus. Taken holistically, research in this subfield of exercise psychology demonstrates a vibrant and reflexive matrix of attentional, emotional, behavioral, physiological, and psychophysiological responses to music across a variety of exercise modalities and intensities. The emergent hypotheses that we propose can be used to frame future research efforts.

PMID: 30390826 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

The relationship between challenge and threat states and anaerobic power, core affect, perceived exertion, and self-focused attention during a competitive sprint cycling task.

Fri, 2019-03-22 07:04
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The relationship between challenge and threat states and anaerobic power, core affect, perceived exertion, and self-focused attention during a competitive sprint cycling task.

Prog Brain Res. 2018;240:1-17

Authors: Wood N, Parker J, Freeman P, Black M, Moore L

Abstract
This study investigated the relationship between challenge and threat states and anaerobic power, core affect, perceived exertion, and self-focused attention during a competitive sprint cycling task. Thirty-five participants completed familiarization, baseline, and pressurized Wingate tests. Before the pressurized test, challenge and threat states were measured via self-report (demand resource evaluation score) and cardiovascular reactivity (challenge/threat index). After the pressurized test, relative peak power, core affect, perceived exertion, and self-focused attention were assessed. Evaluating the pressurized test as more of a challenge (i.e., coping resources match or exceed task demands) was associated with greater increases in relative peak power (vs. the baseline test) and more positive affect, as well as marginally lower perceived exertion and less self-focused attention. However, challenge/threat index failed to predict any variable. Although the findings raise questions about the value of the physiological pattern underlying a challenge state for anaerobic power, they highlight the benefits of evaluating a physically-demanding task as a challenge.

PMID: 30390825 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Evaluation of an activity monitor for use in pregnancy to help reduce excessive gestational weight gain.

Fri, 2019-03-22 07:04
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Evaluation of an activity monitor for use in pregnancy to help reduce excessive gestational weight gain.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018 Jul 31;18(1):312

Authors: Lemmens PMC, Sartor F, Cox LGE, den Boer SV, Westerink JHDM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Excessive weight gain during pregnancy increases the risk for negative effects on mother and child during pregnancy, delivery, and also postnatally. Excessive weight gain can be partially compensated by being sufficiently physically active, which can be measured using activity trackers. Modern activity trackers often use accelerometer data as well as heart rate data to estimate energy expenditure. Because pregnancy affects the metabolism and cardiac output, it is not evident that activity trackers that are calibrated to the general population can be reliably used during pregnancy. We evaluated whether an activity monitor designed for the general population is sufficiently accurate for estimating energy expenditure in pregnant women.
METHODS: Forty pregnant women (age: 30.8 ± 4.7 years, BMI: 25.0 ± 4.0) from all three trimesters performed a 1-h protocol including paced and self-paced exercise activities as well as household activities. We tracked reference energy expenditure using indirect calorimetry and used equivalence testing to determine whether the estimated energy expenditure from the activity monitor was within the limits of equivalence.
RESULTS: Overall we found an averaged underestimation of 10 kcal (estimated energy expenditure was 97% of the reference measurement). The 90% CI for the cumulative total energy expenditure was 94-100%. The activities of self-paced cycling, household activities, stair-walking, and yoga had one of their equivalence boundaries outside a 80-125% range of equivalence; for exercise on a cross-trainer, for self-paced and fixed-pace walking, fixed-paced cycling, and resting, the estimations were within the limits of equivalence.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the activity monitor is sufficiently accurate for every-day use during pregnancy. The observed deviations can be accounted for and are acceptable from a statistical and an applied perspective because the positive and negative deviations that we observed cancel out to an accurate average energy expenditure over a day, and estimations during exercise are sufficiently accurate to enable coaching on physical activity. The positive and negative deviations themselves were relatively small. Therefore, the activity monitor can be used to help in preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy by accurately tracking physical activity.

PMID: 30064390 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Mindfulness on-the-go: Effects of a mindfulness meditation app on work stress and well-being.

Fri, 2019-03-22 07:04
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Mindfulness on-the-go: Effects of a mindfulness meditation app on work stress and well-being.

J Occup Health Psychol. 2019 Feb;24(1):127-138

Authors: Bostock S, Crosswell AD, Prather AA, Steptoe A

Abstract
We investigated whether a mindfulness meditation program delivered via a smartphone application could improve psychological well-being, reduce job strain, and reduce ambulatory blood pressure during the workday. Participants were 238 healthy employees from two large United Kingdom companies that were randomized to a mindfulness meditation practice app or a wait-list control condition. The app offered 45 prerecorded 10- to 20-min guided audio meditations. Participants were asked to complete one meditation per day. Psychosocial measures and blood pressure throughout one working day were measured at baseline and eight weeks later; a follow-up survey was also emailed to participants 16 weeks after the intervention start. Usage data showed that during the 8-week intervention period, participants randomized to the intervention completed an average of 17 meditation sessions (range 0-45 sessions). The intervention group reported significant improvement in well-being, distress, job strain, and perceptions of workplace social support compared to the control group. In addition, the intervention group had a marginally significant decrease in self-measured workday systolic blood pressure from pre- to post-intervention. Sustained positive effects in the intervention group were found for well-being and job strain at the 16-week follow-up assessment. This trial suggests that short guided mindfulness meditations delivered via smartphone and practiced multiple times per week can improve outcomes related to work stress and well-being, with potentially lasting effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

PMID: 29723001 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Effects of Reiki Versus Physiotherapy on Relieving Lower Back Pain and Improving Activities Daily Living of Patients With Intervertebral Disc Hernia.

Fri, 2019-03-22 07:04
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Effects of Reiki Versus Physiotherapy on Relieving Lower Back Pain and Improving Activities Daily Living of Patients With Intervertebral Disc Hernia.

J Evid Based Integr Med. 2018 Jan-Dec;23:2515690X18762745

Authors: Jahantiqh F, Abdollahimohammad A, Firouzkouhi M, Ebrahiminejad V

Abstract
Patients with intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) seek complementary and conventional medical therapies to manage related problems. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Reiki compared with physiotherapy to relieve the lower back pain intensity and to improve the activities of daily living (ADL) in the IDVH patients. In this clinical trial study, 60 patients with IVDH were randomly assigned to one of the Reiki, physiotherapy, and drug therapy groups. The severity of pain and the ADL were measured using visual analog scale (VAS) pain and ADL-Instrumental ADL questionnaire before and after the intervention. A significant difference was found in pain intensity and ADL improvement between Reiki and the drug therapy. However, there was no significant difference between Reiki and physiotherapy groups in managing pain and improving ADL. Reiki and physiotherapy are effective methods in managing pain and improving ADL in patients with IVDH; however, Reiki is more cost-effective and faster treatment method than physiotherapy.

PMID: 29536776 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

The Interrelated Physiological and Psychological Effects of EcoMeditation.

Fri, 2019-03-22 07:04
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The Interrelated Physiological and Psychological Effects of EcoMeditation.

J Evid Based Integr Med. 2018 Jan-Dec;23:2515690X18759626

Authors: Groesbeck G, Bach D, Stapleton P, Blickheuser K, Church D, Sims R

Abstract
This study investigated changes in psychological and physiological markers during a weekend meditation workshop (N = 34). Psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and happiness were assessed. Physiological markers included cortisol, salivary immunoglobulin A (SigA), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), and resting heart rate (RHR). On posttest, significant reductions were found in cortisol (-29%, P < .0001), RHR (-5%, P = .0281), and pain (-43%, P = .0022). Happiness increased significantly (+11%, P = .0159) while the increase in SigA was nonsignificant (+27%, P = .6964). Anxiety, depression, and PTSD all declined (-26%, P = .0159; -32%, P = .0197; -18%, P = .1533), though changes in PTSD did not reach statistical significance. No changes were found in BP, HRV, and heart coherence. Participants were assessed for psychological symptoms at 3-month follow-up, but the results were nonsignificant due to inadequate sample size (n = 17). EcoMeditation shows promise as a stress-reduction method.

PMID: 29502445 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Guided Imagery Improves Mood, Fatigue, and Quality of Life in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis: An Exploratory Efficacy Trial of Healing Light Guided Imagery.

Fri, 2019-03-22 07:04
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Guided Imagery Improves Mood, Fatigue, and Quality of Life in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis: An Exploratory Efficacy Trial of Healing Light Guided Imagery.

J Evid Based Integr Med. 2018 Jan-Dec;23:2515690X17748744

Authors: Case LK, Jackson P, Kinkel R, Mills PJ

Abstract
Multiple sclerosis is a disabling and progressive neurological disease that has significant negative effects on health-related quality of life. This exploratory efficacy study examined the effects of Healing Light Guided Imagery (HLGI), a novel variant of guided imagery, compared with a wait-list control in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Changes in the Beck Depression Inventory, Fatigue Severity Scale, and Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life instrument (physical and mental components) were compared between groups. Patients who completed HLGI (N = 9) showed significant reductions in depressed mood ( P < .05) and fatigue ( P < .01) and showed significant gains in physical ( P = .01) and mental ( P < .01) quality of life compared with journaling (N = 8). Our results suggest that HLGI can improve self-reported physical and mental well-being in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Further research is needed to study the effectiveness of this therapy, as well as its mind-body mechanisms of action.

PMID: 29405761 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Yoga for the Management of Cancer Treatment-Related Toxicities.

Fri, 2019-03-22 07:04
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Yoga for the Management of Cancer Treatment-Related Toxicities.

Curr Oncol Rep. 2018 02 01;20(1):5

Authors: Lin PJ, Peppone LJ, Janelsins MC, Mohile SG, Kamen CS, Kleckner IR, Fung C, Asare M, Cole CL, Culakova E, Mustian KM

Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To (1) explain what yoga is, (2) summarize published literature on the efficacy of yoga for managing cancer treatment-related toxicities, (3) provide clinical recommendations on the use of yoga for oncology professionals, and (4) suggest promising areas for future research.
RECENT FINDINGS: Based on a total of 24 phase II and one phase III clinical trials, low-intensity forms of yoga, specifically gentle hatha and restorative, are feasible, safe, and effective for treating sleep disruption, cancer-related fatigue, cognitive impairment, psychosocial distress, and musculoskeletal symptoms in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and radiation and cancer survivors. Clinicians should consider prescribing yoga for their patients suffering with these toxicities by referring them to qualified yoga professionals. More definitive phase III clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings and to investigate other types, doses, and delivery modes of yoga for treating cancer-related toxicities in patients and survivors.

PMID: 29388071 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Vigilance-related attention systems subserve the discrimination of relative intensity differences between painful stimuli.

Fri, 2019-03-22 07:04
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Vigilance-related attention systems subserve the discrimination of relative intensity differences between painful stimuli.

Pain. 2018 02;159(2):359-370

Authors: Yang SL, Wu TW, Tseng MT

Abstract
Humans require the ability to discriminate intensities of noxious stimuli to avoid future harm. This discrimination process seems to be biased by an individual's attention to pain and involves modulation of the relative intensity differences between stimuli (ie, Weber fraction). Here, we ask whether attention networks in the brain modulate the discrimination process and investigate the neural correlates reflecting the Weber fraction for pain intensity. In a delayed discrimination task, participants differentiated the intensity of 2 sequentially applied stimuli after a delay interval. Compared with nonpain discrimination, pain discrimination performance was modulated by participants' vigilance to pain, which was reflected by the functional connectivity between the left inferior parietal lobule and the right thalamus. Of note, this vigilance-related functional coupling specifically predicted participants' behavioral ability to differentiate pain intensities. Moreover, unique to pain discrimination tasks, the response in the right superior frontal gyrus linearly represented the Weber fraction for pain intensity, which significantly biased participants' pain discriminability. These findings suggest that pain intensity discrimination in humans relies on vigilance-related enhancement in the parieto-thalamic attention network, thereby allowing the prefrontal cortex to estimate the relative intensity differences between noxious stimuli.

PMID: 29076920 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Dopaminergic tone does not influence pain levels during placebo interventions in patients with chronic neuropathic pain.

Fri, 2019-03-22 07:04
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Dopaminergic tone does not influence pain levels during placebo interventions in patients with chronic neuropathic pain.

Pain. 2018 02;159(2):261-272

Authors: Skyt I, Moslemi K, Baastrup C, Grosen K, Benedetti F, Petersen GL, Price DD, Hall KT, Kaptchuk TJ, Svensson P, Jensen TS, Vase L

Abstract
Placebo effects have been reported in patients with chronic neuropathic pain. Expected pain levels and positive emotions are involved in the observed pain relief, but the underlying neurobiology is largely unknown. Patients with neuropathic pain are highly motivated for pain relief, and as motivational factors such as expectations of reward, as well as pain processing in itself, are related to the dopaminergic system, it can be speculated that dopamine release contributes to placebo effects in neuropathic pain. Nineteen patients with neuropathic pain after thoracic surgery were tested during a placebo intervention consisting of open and hidden applications of the pain-relieving agent lidocaine (2 mL) and no treatment. The dopamine antagonist haloperidol (2 mg) and the agonist levodopa/carbidopa (100/25 mg) were administered to test the involvement of dopamine. Expected pain levels, desire for pain relief, and ongoing and evoked pain were assessed on mechanical visual analog scales (0-10). Significant placebo effects on ongoing (P ≤ 0.003) and evoked (P ≤ 0.002) pain were observed. Expectancy and desire accounted for up to 41.2% and 71.5% of the variance in ongoing and evoked pain, respectively, after the open application of lidocaine. We found no evidence for an effect of haloperidol and levodopa/carbidopa on neuropathic pain levels (P = 0.071-0.963). Dopamine seemed to influence the levels of expectancy and desire, yet there was no evidence for indirect or interaction effects on the placebo effect. This is the first study to suggest that dopamine does not contribute to placebo effects in chronic neuropathic pain.

PMID: 29068872 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Predictive factors of success in neurofeedback training for children with ADHD.

Fri, 2019-03-22 07:04
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Predictive factors of success in neurofeedback training for children with ADHD.

Dev Neurorehabil. 2019 Jan;22(1):3-12

Authors: Okumura Y, Kita Y, Omori M, Suzuki K, Yasumura A, Fukuda A, Inagaki M

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Neurofeedback (NF) training aims the enhancement of self-regulation over brain activities. While it is largely recognized as an effective treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the existence of non-learners has also been reported. The present study explored pre-training assessment indices that could predict learners prior to NF training.
METHODS: Twenty-two children with ADHD participated in slow cortical potential (SCP) NF training and completed pre- and post-training assessments. Participants were classified into learners or non-learners based on their progress in the SCP regulation, and pre-training indices that differentiate the two groups were examined by decision tree analysis.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The learner rate in NF training was 45.5%. Learners were predicted by pre-training cognitive and neurophysiological measures regarding Stroop tasks, which suggested relatively intact executive function as their characteristics. Given that NF training is not universally effective for children with ADHD, further studies are necessary to establish application criteria.

PMID: 28594254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Somatosensory alpha oscillations gate perceptual learning efficiency.

Thu, 2019-03-21 07:02
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Somatosensory alpha oscillations gate perceptual learning efficiency.

Nat Commun. 2019 01 16;10(1):263

Authors: Brickwedde M, Krüger MC, Dinse HR

Abstract
Cognition and perception are closely coupled to alpha power, but whether there is a link between alpha power and perceptual learning efficacy is unknown. Here we show that somatosensory alpha power can be successfully up- and down-regulated with short-term neurofeedback training, which in turn controls subsequent tactile perceptual learning. We find that neurofeedback-induced increases in alpha power lead to enhanced learning, whereas reductions in alpha power impede learning. As a consequence, interindividual learning variability is substantially reduced. No comparable impact is observed for oscillatory power in theta, beta, and lower gamma frequency bands. Our results demonstrate that high pre-learning alpha levels are a requirement for reaching high learning efficiency. These data provide further evidence that alpha oscillations shape the functional architecture of the brain network by gating neural resources and thereby modulating levels of preparedness for upcoming processing.

PMID: 30651567 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

The effect of an empathy role-play program for operating room nursing students.

Thu, 2019-03-21 07:02
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The effect of an empathy role-play program for operating room nursing students.

J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2018;15:29

Authors: Larti N, Ashouri E, Aarabi A

Abstract
PURPOSE: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of a role-playing training program for empathetic communication with patients on empathy scores of operating room nursing students.
METHODS: This clinical trial was carried out on 77 operating room nursing students from the first to the fourth years studied in the School of Nursing and Midwifery at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in the academic year 2017-2018. The intervention administered on the experimental group included a 12-hour training program with the theme of expressing empathy to patients using a role-playing technique. The Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession Students' Version was completed before, immediately after, and one month after the intervention by the samples. Comparison analysis was done among three stages.
RESULTS: Comparing the total mean empathy scores before intervention in the control group and the experimental one did not reveal a significant difference (P=0.50); however, the total mean empathy scores in the experimental group, immediately after and one month after the intervention, was higher than that in the control group (P<0.001).
CONCLUSION: Empathy training through a role-playing technique was effective on improving the empathy scores of operating room nursing students and it also highlighted the fact that empathy could be promoted by education. Making changes in educational curriculum of operating room nursing students was indispensable in order to make them familiar with the concept of empathy in operating room.

PMID: 30541224 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Assessment of Pain Management, Acceptance of Illness, and Adjustment to Life with Cancer in Patients with Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Cancer.

Thu, 2019-03-21 07:02
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Assessment of Pain Management, Acceptance of Illness, and Adjustment to Life with Cancer in Patients with Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Cancer.

Biomed Res Int. 2018;2018:7598632

Authors: Krajewski W, Mazur M, Poterek A, Pastuszak A, Halska U, Tukiendorf A, Rymaszewska J, Zdrojowy R

Abstract
Purpose: According to the European Association of Urology bladder cancer is the seventh most commonly diagnosed malignancy in the world's male population. Despite its high incidence, papers evaluating psychological state in those patients' group are lacking. The purpose of the study was to evaluate pain management, disease acceptance, and adjustment to cancer in homogenous group of patients diagnosed with nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).
Methods: Group of 252 male patients who were scheduled for NMIBC treatment were prospectively evaluated. Patients fulfilled Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS), Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer (Mini-MAC) and Coping Strategies (CSQ) questionnaires before treatment introduction.
Results: Highest CSQ score was achieved by the coping self-statements subscale (mean=18,37). The catastrophizing subscale score was the lowest (mean=11,24). Place of residence affected results of CSQ statement about pain control. Catastrophizing and coping self-statements strategies were associated with matrimonial status. In the Mini-MAC questionnaire the fighting spirit way of coping had the highest (21,73) and the helplessness-hopelessness subscale had the lowest mean value (13,3). Matrimonial status was strongly associated with anxious preoccupation, fighting spirit, and helplessness - hopelessness way of coping. The mean AIS test score was 28.8. AIS result was influenced by patient's marital status, yet not by education, place of residence, nor any clinical factor.
Conclusions: In the examined group, the level of acceptance of the disease reached values that were slightly higher than the average. It indicated a fairly good adaptation to cancer. Among the methods of coping with cancer, the constructive style is definitely dominant with a high intensity of the fighting spirit strategy. The destructive style of cancer coping reached low values with a low intensity of helplessness/hopelessness strategy. From pain coping strategies, self-statements and praying/hoping were the most commonly chosen ways, whereas catastrophizing was the rarest. Many associations between various questioners' results were also observed.

PMID: 30426013 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Immediate effects of real-time postural biofeedback on spinal posture, muscle activity, and perceived pain severity in adults with neck pain.

Thu, 2019-03-21 07:02
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Immediate effects of real-time postural biofeedback on spinal posture, muscle activity, and perceived pain severity in adults with neck pain.

Gait Posture. 2019 01;67:187-193

Authors: Kuo YL, Wang PS, Ko PY, Huang KY, Tsai YJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have investigated various types of postural biofeedback devices on different body regions to improve posture; however, they focused only on healthy adults without a history of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. In addition, those postural biofeedback devices used in previous studies are often designed for experimental research. The designs are usually bulky with many wires, which is not practical for everyday use.
RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of this study was to determine the immediate effect of a commercially available real-time postural biofeedback device on spinal posture, muscle activity, and perceived pain severity in adults with neck pain.
METHODS: 21 adults who had chronic or recurrent nonspecific neck pain for more than 3 months and whose pain was induced or aggravated by prolonged computer work were enrolled in this study. Spinal posture (head tilt, neck flexion, cervical and thoracic angles), muscle activity (cervical erector spinae, upper trapezius, and thoracic erector spinae), and self-reported neck and shoulder pain were measured during computer typing tasks, with and without biofeedback.
RESULTS: Compared with the non-biofeedback condition, the biofeedback condition significantly decreased neck flexion, upper cervical, and lower thoracic angles and lowered the activity of the cervical erector spinae. Self-reported neck pain was not influenced by the application of biofeedback, but significantly increased over the 1-hour typing task.
SIGNIFICANCE: The application of a commercially available wearable real-time biofeedback device improves sitting posture and reduces muscular activity in adults with nonspecific neck pain during computer work. Future studies should examine the long-term effects of wearable real-time postural biofeedback devices for prevention and management of neck pain.

PMID: 30359957 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Feasibility of an Internet-based positive psychological intervention for hemodialysis patients with symptoms of depression.

Thu, 2019-03-21 07:02
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Feasibility of an Internet-based positive psychological intervention for hemodialysis patients with symptoms of depression.

Soc Work Health Care. 2018 Nov-Dec;57(10):864-879

Authors: Hernandez R, Burrows B, Wilund K, Cohn M, Xu S, Moskowitz JT

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Depression is a pervasive psychological issue facing hemodialysis (HD) patients. Novel technology-based treatment strategies that deploy psychology-based interventions have not been the focus for therapy and few published studies exist. The aim of the current trial is to determine the feasibility and acceptability of an Internet-based positive psychological intervention in HD patients with comorbid depressive symptoms.
METHODS: HD patients (n = 14) with elevated symptoms of depression were enrolled in a single-arm pre-post trial with clinical assessments at baseline and immediately post intervention. Chairside during regularly scheduled HD treatment, patients utilized a web browser to complete online modules promoting skills for increasing positive emotion over a 5-week period using Apple IPads. Targeted skills included noting of daily positive events, gratitude, positive reappraisal, acts of kindness, and mindfulness/meditation.
RESULTS: Twelve of 14 patients completed the program for an 85.7% retention rate. Participants felt satisfied with each session and offered consistently positive feedback. On average, participants visited the website 3.5 times per week. Significant improvements were evident for depressive symptoms (15.3 vs. 10.9; p = 0.04), as per the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale.
CONCLUSIONS: An innovative Internet-based positive psychological intervention represents a feasible and useful therapeutic option for HD patients with depressive symptoms.

PMID: 30277449 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Nonpharmacologic Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review.

Thu, 2019-03-21 07:02
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Nonpharmacologic Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review.

Pediatrics. 2018 06;141(6):

Authors: Goode AP, Coeytaux RR, Maslow GR, Davis N, Hill S, Namdari B, LaPointe NMA, Befus D, Lallinger KR, Bowen SE, Kosinski A, McBroom AJ, Sanders GD, Kemper AR

Abstract
CONTEXT: Nonpharmacologic treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) encompass a range of care approaches from structured behavioral interventions to complementary medicines.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the comparative effectiveness of nonpharmacologic treatments for ADHD among individuals 17 years of age and younger.
DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for relevant English-language studies published from January 1, 2009 through November 7, 2016.
STUDY SELECTION: We included studies that compared any ADHD nonpharmacologic treatment strategy with placebo, pharmacologic, or another nonpharmacologic treatment.
DATA EXTRACTION: Study design, patient characteristics, intervention approaches, follow-up times, and outcomes were abstracted. For comparisons with at least 3 similar studies, random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate pooled estimates.
RESULTS: We identified 54 studies of nonpharmacologic treatments, including neurofeedback, cognitive training, cognitive behavioral therapy, child or parent training, dietary omega fatty acid supplementation, and herbal and/or dietary approaches. No new guidance was identified regarding the comparative effectiveness of nonpharmacologic treatments. Pooled results for omega fatty acids found no significant effects for parent rating of ADHD total symptoms (n = 411; standardized mean difference -0.32; 95% confidence interval -0.80 to 0.15; I2 = 52.4%; P = .10) or teacher-rated total ADHD symptoms (n = 287; standardized mean difference -0.08; 95% confidence interval -0.47 to 0.32; I2 = 0.0%; P = .56).
LIMITATIONS: Studies often did not reflect the primary care setting and had short follow-up periods, small sample sizes, variations in outcomes, and inconsistent reporting of comparative statistical analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite wide use, there are significant gaps in knowledge regarding the effectiveness of ADHD nonpharmacologic treatments.

PMID: 29848556 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

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