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Effects of Interviewer Support on Children's Memory and Suggestibility: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Experimental Research.

Thu, 2019-04-04 07:43
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Effects of Interviewer Support on Children's Memory and Suggestibility: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Experimental Research.

Trauma Violence Abuse. 2019 01;20(1):22-39

Authors: Saywitz KJ, Wells CR, Larson RP, Hobbs SD

Abstract
The accuracy of children's reports of abuse has been hotly debated in the press, academia, and the courtroom. Yet, children's accuracy depends, in part, on the context in which children are interviewed. Guidelines often recommend creating a supportive psychosocial context to promote open, honest responding; however, there is also concern that support promotes social desirability and acquiescence to suggestion, leading children to report more of what they perceive adults want to hear than the truth. The question remains as to whether there is a sufficient body of scientific research to determine whether interviewer supportiveness improves interview outcomes while minimizing children's stress or whether it increases suggestibility and impairs accuracy. Using a systematic search strategy and meta-analyses, this study identifies and reviews findings from experimental studies of the effects of interviewer supportiveness on the accuracy of children's reports. Although the number of studies in the evidence base is small ( n = 15), the studies are of relatively good quality. Results suggest noncontingent interviewer support bolsters children's accuracy. Children are more resistant and less acquiescent to suggestive questions when interviewers are supportive as compared to nonsupportive or neutral. Effects are in the moderate range. Interviewer support is also associated with fewer errors on nonsuggestive questions. Discussion focuses on implications for practice; directions for future research; identifying vulnerable subgroups; and underlying cognitive, social, and emotional mechanisms.

PMID: 30803408 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Protective effect of heart rate variability biofeedback on stress-induced lung function impairment in asthma.

Thu, 2019-04-04 07:43
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Protective effect of heart rate variability biofeedback on stress-induced lung function impairment in asthma.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2019 04;262:49-56

Authors: Taghizadeh N, Eslaminejad A, Raoufy MR

Abstract
Psychological stress can provoke airway constriction in asthmatic patients, which may be because of autonomic nervous system dysfunction in asthma. We investigated the effect of enhancing respiratory sinus arrhythmia using heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) on spirometry performance and HRV indices during stress induced by Stroop Color-Word interference test in asthmatic patients and healthy volunteers. Stress caused decrease in FEV1%, FVC%, and PEF% compared to baseline in asthmatic patients, but not in healthy subjects. A single short duration episode of HRV-BF not only had a protective effect on stress-induced airway constriction, but also significantly augmented the level of FEV1% and FVC% as compared with their own baseline. Also, there was a significant correlation between HRV changes and the augmentation of spirometry performance in asthmatic patients receiving HRV-BF. Our findings indicated that even a single short duration episode of HRV-BF can decrease susceptibility to stress-induced lung function impairment in patients with asthma, which may be through the modulation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia.

PMID: 30695733 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Randomized controlled trial of an 8-week intervention combining self-care and hypnosis for post-treatment cancer patients: study protocol.

Thu, 2019-04-04 07:43
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Randomized controlled trial of an 8-week intervention combining self-care and hypnosis for post-treatment cancer patients: study protocol.

BMC Cancer. 2018 Nov 15;18(1):1113

Authors: Grégoire C, Faymonville ME, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Charland-Verville V, Jerusalem G, Bragard I

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Cancer has a lot of consequences on patients' quality of life (such as cancer-related fatigue (CRF), sleep difficulties and emotional distress) and on patients' partners and their relationship, such as distress and communication difficulties. These consequences are undertreated, and interventions based on hypnosis often focus on breast cancer patients only. This paper describes the study protocol of a longitudinal randomized controlled trial aiming to assess the efficacy of an 8-week intervention combining hypnosis and self-care to improve cancer patients' CRF, sleep and emotional distress and to indirectly improve their partners' distress.
METHODS: A power analysis required a total sample of 88 patients. To test the efficacy of the intervention, results of the experimental group receiving the intervention will be compared to those of the control group. Data will be collected by questionnaires, relaxation tasks, an attentional bias task, and everyday life assessments measured at four different times: 1.) before inclusion in the study (baseline); 2.) after the intervention; and 3.) at 4- and 12-month follow-up. Partners' symptoms will also be evaluated with questionnaires at the same measurement times.
DISCUSSION: There is a growing interest in alternative approaches (such as hypnosis) in addition to standard therapies in oncology settings. The results of this study should be useful for improving knowledge about long-term efficacy of hypnosis-based group interventions for CRF, sleep and distress among all types of cancer patients and their partners, and to better understand the mechanisms of emotional regulation in cancer patients through the attentional bias task.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03144154). Retrospectively registered on the 1st of May, 2017.

PMID: 30442120 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

The structure of resilience in irritable bowel syndrome and its improvement through hypnotherapy: Cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal data.

Thu, 2019-04-04 07:43
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The structure of resilience in irritable bowel syndrome and its improvement through hypnotherapy: Cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal data.

PLoS One. 2018;13(11):e0202538

Authors: Peter J, Tran US, Michalski M, Moser G

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Resilience refers to a class of variables that are highly relevant to wellbeing and coping with stress, trauma, and chronic adversity. Despite its significance for health, resilience suffers from poor conceptual integration. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder with altered psychological stress reactivity and a brain-gut-microbiota axis, which causes high levels of chronic strain. Gut-directed Hypnotherapy (GHT) is a standardized treatment for IBS aimed at improving resilience. An improvement of resilience as a result of GHT has been hypothesized but requires further investigation. The aims of the study were to validate the construct and develop an integrational measure of various resilience domains by dimensional reduction, and to investigate changes in resilience in IBS patients after GHT.
METHOD: A total of N = 74 gastroenterology outpatients with IBS (Rome III criteria) were examined in 7 resilience domains, quality of life, psychological distress and symptom severity. Of these, n = 53 participated in 7 to 10 GHT group sessions (Manchester protocol). Post-treatment examinations were performed on average 10 months after last GHT session.
RESULTS: Resilience factors proved to be unidimensional in the total sample. Greater resilience (composite score of resilience domains) and quality of life, and lower symptom severity and psychological distress were found after treatment (n = 16). Similar differences were present in cross-sectional comparisons of n = 37 treated vs. n = 37 untreated patients.
CONCLUSION: Resilience factors share a common psychological dimension and are functionally connected. The absence of maladaptive behaviours contributes to resilience. Improvements in resilience after hypnotherapy with parallel increases in quality of life and reduced psychological distress and symptom severity were observed. Independent replications with larger sample sizes and randomized controlled trials are needed.

PMID: 30419026 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Social modulation of object-directed but not image-directed actions.

Thu, 2019-04-04 07:43
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Social modulation of object-directed but not image-directed actions.

PLoS One. 2018;13(10):e0205830

Authors: Dosso JA, Kingstone A

Abstract
There has recently been an increased research focus on the influence of social factors on human cognition, attention, and action. While this represents an important step towards an ecologically valid description of real-world behaviour, this work has primarily examined dyads interacting with virtual stimuli i.e. on-screen images of objects. Though differences between actions to images and real items are known, their relative sensitivity to social factors is largely unknown. We argue that because images and real items elicit different neural representations, patterns of attention, and hand actions, a direct comparison between the magnitude of social effects while interacting with images and real objects is demanded. We examined patterns of reaching as individuals performed a shape-matching game. Images and real objects were used as stimuli, and social context was manipulated via the proximity of an observer. We found that social context interacted with stimulus type to modulate behaviour. Specifically, there was a delay in reaching for distant objects when a participant was facing another individual but this social effect only occurred when the stimuli were real objects. Our data suggest that even when images and real objects are arranged to share the affordance of reachability, they differ in their sensitivity to social influences. Therefore, the measurement of social effects using on-screen stimuli may poorly predict the social effects of actions directed towards real objects. Accordingly, generalizations between these two domains should be treated with caution.

PMID: 30352061 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Headache: Tension-Type Headache.

Thu, 2019-04-04 07:43
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Headache: Tension-Type Headache.

FP Essent. 2018 Oct;473:17-20

Authors: Scripter C

Abstract
Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most common primary headache disorder, with a worldwide lifetime prevalence of 46% to 78%. TTH causes greater disability and accounts for more missed work days than migraine. The etiology of TTH is thought to be multifactorial, involving genetic and environmental factors. The three subtypes of TTH are infrequent episodic, frequent episodic, and chronic. Patients typically describe headache pain as pressing, dull, and with the sensation of a tight band around the head. Nonprescription analgesics are indicated for management of episodic TTH. Prophylaxis should be considered for patients with chronic TTH, with very frequent episodic TTH, at risk of medication overuse headache, and who are unable to tolerate effective doses of first-line drugs. Amitriptyline is recommended as a first-line drug for prophylaxis. (This is an off-label use of amitriptyline.) Physical and integrative therapies for TTH management include electromyography biofeedback, cognitive behavioral therapy, exercise, massage, and trigger point injection.

PMID: 30346680 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Meditation and yoga practice are associated with smaller right amygdala volume: the Rotterdam study.

Thu, 2019-04-04 07:43
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Meditation and yoga practice are associated with smaller right amygdala volume: the Rotterdam study.

Brain Imaging Behav. 2018 Dec;12(6):1631-1639

Authors: Gotink RA, Vernooij MW, Ikram MA, Niessen WJ, Krestin GP, Hofman A, Tiemeier H, Hunink MGM

Abstract
To determine the association between meditation and yoga practice, experienced stress, and amygdala and hippocampal volume in a large population-based study. This study was embedded within the population-based Rotterdam Study and included 3742 participants for cross-sectional association. Participants filled out a questionnaire assessing meditation practice, yoga practice, and experienced stress, and underwent a magnetic resonance scan of the brain. 2397 participants underwent multiple brain scans, and were assessed for structural change over time. Amygdala and hippocampal volumes were regions of interest, as these are structures that may be affected by meditation. Multivariable linear regression analysis and mixed linear models were performed adjusted for age, sex, educational level, intracranial volume, cardiovascular risk, anxiety, depression and stress. 15.7% of individuals participated in at least one form of practice. Those who performed meditation and yoga practices reported significantly more stress (mean difference 0.2 on a 1-5 scale, p < .001) and more depressive symptoms (mean difference 1.03 on CESD, p = .015). Partaking in meditation and yoga practices was associated with a significantly lower right amygdala volume (β = - 31.8 mm3, p = .005), and lower left hippocampus volume (β = - 75.3 mm3, p = .025). Repeated measurements using linear mixed models showed a significant effect over time on the right amygdala of practicing meditation and yoga (β = - 24.4 mm3, SE 11.3, p = .031). Partaking in meditation and yoga practice is associated with more experienced stress while it also helps cope with stress, and is associated with smaller right amygdala volume.

PMID: 29417491 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Effects of Tai Chi-based cardiac rehabilitation on aerobic endurance, psychosocial well-being, and cardiovascular risk reduction among patients with coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Thu, 2019-04-04 07:43
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Effects of Tai Chi-based cardiac rehabilitation on aerobic endurance, psychosocial well-being, and cardiovascular risk reduction among patients with coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2018 04;17(4):368-383

Authors: Liu T, Chan AW, Liu YH, Taylor-Piliae RE

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Tai Chi is an attractive exercise to improve cardiovascular health. This review aimed to synthesize articles written both in Chinese and in English to evaluate the effects of Tai Chi-based cardiac rehabilitation on aerobic endurance, psychosocial well-being and cardiovascular diseases risk reduction for coronary heart diseases patients.
METHODS: PRISMA guidelines were used to search major health databases to identify randomized controlled trials or non-randomized controlled clinical trials that evaluated Tai Chi intervention compared with active or non-active control groups in coronary heart disease patients. When suitable, data were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis model.
RESULTS: Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Tai Chi groups showed a large and significant improvement in aerobic endurance compared with both active and non-active control interventions (standard mean difference (SMD) 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-1.66; p <0.001). Tai Chi groups also showed a significantly lower level of anxiety (SMD=9.28; CI: 17.46-1.10; p=0.03) and depression (SMD=9.42; CI: 13.59-5.26; p <0.001), and significantly better quality of life (SMD=0.73; 95% CI: 0.39-1.08; p <0.001) compared with non-active control groups.
CONCLUSION: Significant effects of Tai Chi have been found in improving aerobic endurance and psychosocial well-being among coronary heart disease patients. Tai Chi could be a cost-effective and safe exercise option in cardiac rehabilitation. However, the effect of Tai Chi on cardiovascular disease risk reduction has not been amply investigated among coronary heart disease patients. Caution is also warranted in view of a small number of studies for this meta-analysis and potential heterogeneity in differences in the varied designs of Tai Chi intervention.

PMID: 29256626 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Is abdominal hypopressive technique effective in the prevention and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction? Marketing or evidence from high-quality clinical trials?

Thu, 2019-04-04 07:43
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Is abdominal hypopressive technique effective in the prevention and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction? Marketing or evidence from high-quality clinical trials?

Br J Sports Med. 2019 Jan;53(2):135-136

Authors: Martín-Rodríguez S, Bø K

PMID: 29038216 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Yoga in the Yard.

Thu, 2019-04-04 07:43
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Yoga in the Yard.

Psychiatr Serv. 2017 09 01;68(9):980

Authors: Cisse A, Giles C, Salloum IM

PMID: 28862098 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Meditation enhances brain oxygenation, upregulates BDNF and improves quality of life in patients with primary open angle glaucoma: A randomized controlled trial.

Tue, 2019-04-02 07:37
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Meditation enhances brain oxygenation, upregulates BDNF and improves quality of life in patients with primary open angle glaucoma: A randomized controlled trial.

Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2018;36(6):741-753

Authors: Gagrani M, Faiq MA, Sidhu T, Dada R, Yadav RK, Sihota R, Kochhar KP, Verma R, Dada T

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma (POAG) is a kind of neurodegenerative disease known to be closely associated with stress and adverse quality of life (QOL). Stress has also been shown to be involved in etiopathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Complementary treatment in form of Meditation has been reported to improve QOL, brain oxygenation and decrease markers of stress. With this premise, a randomized controlled trial was carried out to assess the effect of Meditation on intraocular pressure, subjective QOL and objective markers of stress and brain oxygenation in patients with POAG.
METHODS: Sixty patients were randomized into intervention and control groups. Intervention group underwent 45 minutes of Meditation daily for 6 weeks in addition to standard medical treatment while controls received only standard medical treatment. Inclusion criteria were patients with POAG, age >45 years, best corrected visual acuity >6/60. Patients with other ocular co-morbid conditions contributing to vision loss, systemic diseases, patients already practicing meditation in any form were excluded. An assessment of IOP, brain oxygenation using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), QOL (WHO-BREF QOL) and stress markers in serum (cortisol, β-endorphins, interleukin-6, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), reactive oxygen species) was made at baseline and at 6 weeks.
RESULTS: 21 female and 39 male patients were enrolled with a mean age of 57.28±9.37 years. All parameters were comparable between two groups at baseline. At 6 weeks mean level of IOP decreased significantly in intervention group (15.9±1.8 mmHg to 14.4±1.21 mm Hg, p-value 0.0001) as compared to control group (15.7±1.4 mmHg to 15.65±1.41, p-value 0.41). fNIRS showed significant improvement in oxygenated hemoglobin change (ΔHbO) in intervention group in the prefrontal cortex (p-value <  0.0001) as compared to control group (p-value 0.52). WHO-BREF QOL score increased significantly in intervention group (86.6±6.16 to 93.3±5.66, p-value 0.0001) as compared to control (89±7.25 to 89.07±3.24, p-value 0.74).Mean serum cortisol decreased significantly in intervention group (497±46.37 ng/ml to 447±53.78 ng/ml, p-value 0.01) as compared to control group (519.75±24.5 to 522.58±26.63 ng/ml, p-value 0.64). Mean β-endorphin levels increased significantly (33±5.52pg/ml to 43.27pg/ml, p-value <  0.0001) as compared to control group (34.78±4.1pg/ml to 36.33pg±4.07pg/ml p-value 0.27). Interleukin-6 decreased significantly in intervention group (2.2±0.5 ng/ml to 1.35±0.32 ng/ml, p-value <  0.0001) as compared to control group (2.03±0.37 to 2.17±0.34 ng/ml p-value 0.25). BDNF increased significantly in intervention group (52.24±6.71 to 63.25±13.48 ng/ml p-value 0.004) as compared to control group (53.23±5.82 to 54.42±5.66 ng/ml p-value 0.54). ROS decreased significantly in intervention group (1596.19±179.14 to 1261±244.31 RLU/min/104 neutrophils p-value 0.0001) as compared to control group (1577.5±172.02 to 1662.5±84.75 RLU/min/104 neutrophils p-value 0.16).
CONCLUSIONS: A short term course of Meditation was associated with significant improvement in brain oxygenation and QOL along with a reduction in IOP and stress markers. Meditation may be a useful as an adjunct to standard treatment in patients with POAG and potentially decrease the risk of glaucoma progression.

PMID: 30400122 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

The swinging effect intervention: CBT based guided imagery and breathing technique integrated with mindfulness therapy for cancer patients.

Tue, 2019-04-02 07:37
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The swinging effect intervention: CBT based guided imagery and breathing technique integrated with mindfulness therapy for cancer patients.

Med Hypotheses. 2018 12;121:42-43

Authors: Bahcivan O, Estape T, Gutierrez-Maldonado J

PMID: 30396486 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Prefrontal expectancy and reinforcement-driven antidepressant placebo effects.

Tue, 2019-04-02 07:37
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Prefrontal expectancy and reinforcement-driven antidepressant placebo effects.

Transl Psychiatry. 2018 10 15;8(1):222

Authors: Peciña M, Heffernan J, Wilson J, Zubieta JK, Dombrovski AY

Abstract
Placebo responses in depression exemplify how expectancies and appraisals impact mood. Cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying these responses are still poorly understood, partly due to the difficulty of simulating antidepressant effects and manipulating mood experimentally. To address these challenges, we developed an acute antidepressant placebo experiment involving the intravenous administration of a "fast-acting antidepressant" and a trial-by-trial sham fMRI "neurofeedback" manipulation, purporting to reveal mood-relevant neural responses. Twenty volunteers with major depression underwent this experiment while rating their expected and actual mood improvement. Mixed-effects analyses of trial-by-trial ratings revealed that the "drug" infusion cues induced higher expectancies of mood improvement, while both the "drug" infusion cue and the sham neurofeedback induced a reported mood improvement. Neurofeedback of greater magnitude, compared to lower magnitude, recruited the lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC). Individuals with greater lPFC responses to neurofeedback displayed: (1) greater effect of previous mood improvement on expectancy ratings and (2) greater effect of sham neurofeedback on mood improvement. Behavioral antidepressant placebo effects were additionally moderated by changes in peripheral β-endorphin plasma levels and depressive symptomatology. These data demonstrate the feasibility of trial-by-trial manipulation of antidepressant placebo-associated expectancies and their reinforcement. We provide initial insights into the role of the lPFC in the interplay between placebo-induced expectancies and mood, as well as preliminary evidence for the role of the opioid system in antidepressant placebo effects.

PMID: 30323205 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

A comparison of debate and role play in enhancing critical thinking and communication skills of medical students during problem based learning.

Tue, 2019-04-02 07:37
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A comparison of debate and role play in enhancing critical thinking and communication skills of medical students during problem based learning.

Biochem Mol Biol Educ. 2018 07;46(4):336-342

Authors: Latif R, Mumtaz S, Mumtaz R, Hussain A

Abstract
Debate and role play for learning critical thinking and communication skills are being increasingly used in various undergraduate medical schools worldwide. We aim to compare students' views about effectiveness of two teaching strategies; debate and role play to exercise critical thinking and communication skills during problem-based learning (PBL). This is a comparative, cross-sectional, and questionnaire-based study. Our subjects were second year undergraduate female medical students enrolled in Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (IAU), College of Medicine from September 2014-2016, divided into 10 small PBL groups (10-13 students/group/year). Students rated role play and debate as equally effective in improving communication skills. Debate was rated superior to role play in "opening new avenues of thinking" (p-value is 0.01), whereas in "integration of knowledge of basic medical sciences with clinical skills" and "reflection of real life experience" students rated role play being superior to debate (p-value 0.01 and 0.00, respectively). Both role play and debate are well accepted by the students in PBL curriculum as an effective teaching methodology. Both are perceived equally good in improving students' communication skills. Few aspects of critical thinking are improved more by role plays compared to debate and vice versa. © 2018 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 46:336-342, 2018.

PMID: 29668075 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

TRR's Warrior Camp: An Intensive Treatment Program for Combat Trauma in Active Military and Veterans of All Eras.

Tue, 2019-04-02 07:37
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TRR's Warrior Camp: An Intensive Treatment Program for Combat Trauma in Active Military and Veterans of All Eras.

Mil Med. 2018 03 01;183(suppl_1):403-407

Authors: Steele E, Wood DS, J Usadi E, Applegarth DM

Abstract
Effective treatments for combat trauma in military service members exist, but barriers to care abound, including poor access, stigma, and dropout. Although the effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be severe, recovery is possible when proper treatment is implemented. Trauma and Resiliency Resources, Inc.'s Warrior Camp (WC) program is designed to address the effects of combat trauma in military service members and veterans. This intensive, 7-d treatment incorporates eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, equine-assisted psychotherapy, yoga, and narrative writing in context of community. This single-group pretest-posttest design included paired t-tests and effect size analyses for 85 participants of WC. Outcome measures included the Mississippi Scale for Combat-related PTSD, the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Revised Adult Attachment Scales, and the Moral Injury Events Scale. Clinician-administered measures included the Davidson Trauma Scale and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. All measures showed statistically significant reductions in distress. The effect sizes ranged from small to large. Results suggest that WC participants experienced significant improvement in PTSD, depression, moral injury, dissociation and adult attachment. Clinicians should consider the potential benefits of this short-term, intensive treatment when addressing combat-related PTSD among military service members and veterans.

PMID: 29635563 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

A systematic review of psychoneuroimmunology-based interventions.

Tue, 2019-04-02 07:37
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A systematic review of psychoneuroimmunology-based interventions.

Psychol Health Med. 2018 07;23(6):635-652

Authors: Moraes LJ, Miranda MB, Loures LF, Mainieri AG, Mármora CHC

Abstract
Psychoneuroimmunology-based interventions are used to attenuated disease progression and/or side effects of pharmacological treatment. This systematic review evaluates the different therapeutic and/or clinical psychoneuroimmunology-based interventions associated to both psychological, neuroendocrine and immunological variables. The review was conducted for all English, Portuguese and Spanish language articles published between 2005 and 2015. Independent investigators analyzed 42 studies concerning human psychoneuroimmunology-based interventions. Decreased levels of cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine (stress-related hormones) were associated to interventions like yoga, meditation, tai chi, acupuncture, mindfulness, religious/spiritual practices, cognitive behavior therapy, coping and physical exercises. Moreover, those interventions were also associated to reductions in inflammatory processes and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in cancer, HIV, depression, anxiety, wound healing, sleep disorder, cardiovascular diseases and fibromyalgia. Despite the associations between PNI variables and clinical/therapeutic interventions, only one study evidenced significant effects on a disease progression.

PMID: 29262731 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Deformities of Nature: Sleepwalking and Non-Conscious States of Mind in Late Eighteenth-Century Britain.

Tue, 2019-04-02 07:37
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Deformities of Nature: Sleepwalking and Non-Conscious States of Mind in Late Eighteenth-Century Britain.

J Hist Ideas. 2017;78(3):401-425

Authors: Handley S

Abstract
This article examines the didactic appropriation of sleepwalking reports in late eighteenth-century Britain in pedagogical treatises, conduct books, and children's literature. It examines how and why reports of sleepwalkers were used to edify young minds and in so doing traces a critical shift in understandings of sleepwalkers, which were transformed from preternatural wonders to deformities of nature that exemplified the dangerous consequences of irrational, unregulated bodies and minds. This new role was predicated on new medical and philosophical understandings of sleepwalking and on the prioritisation of developmental psychology by pedagogues and philosophers.

PMID: 28757487 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

The Cure That Lies Within: The Mind-Body Connection in Orthopaedics.

Tue, 2019-04-02 07:37
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The Cure That Lies Within: The Mind-Body Connection in Orthopaedics.

Orthop Nurs. 2017 Mar/Apr;36(2):159-160

Authors:

PMID: 28358781 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

What we imagine is what we do? A critical overview about mental imagery as a strategy to study human defensive responses.

Sat, 2019-03-30 07:28
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What we imagine is what we do? A critical overview about mental imagery as a strategy to study human defensive responses.

Behav Brain Res. 2019 01 14;357-358:18-28

Authors: Shuhama R, Blanchard DC, Graeff FG, Del-Ben CM

Abstract
There is not a single and perfect instinctive behavior to react to threatening situations. However, the study of particular features of these situations suggests the existence of prototypical emotional reactions and associated defensive behaviors. Since all living beings are subjected to common evolutionary pressures, such as predation and conspecific competition, it is plausible that there is conservation of some basic defensive responses in their behavioral repertoire. The choice for approaching or withdrawing from a given situation depends, among others things, on environmental features, including the threat intensity and the distance from the source of the threat. If these basic responses were conserved in humans, they should be expressed in ways similar to those observed in non-human animals. Due to ethical reasons and easy application, mental imagery has been used to test this hypothesis. The studies included in this review point to the validity of this method, with both self-report and neurophysiological findings corroborating the hypothesis under scrutiny. Despite the need for additional investigation to deal with some limitations, the information obtained with this method can help to a better understanding of the conditions that provoke specific defensive behaviors and related emotions. This knowledge may also contribute to identify vulnerability factors for fear/anxiety-related disorders.

PMID: 28716675 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Effectiveness of a brief adjunctive yoga intervention for short-term mood and psychiatric symptom change during partial hospitalization.

Fri, 2019-03-29 07:26
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Effectiveness of a brief adjunctive yoga intervention for short-term mood and psychiatric symptom change during partial hospitalization.

Psychiatr Rehabil J. 2019 Mar;42(1):48-56

Authors: Chad-Friedman S, Forgeard M, McHugh K, Beard C, Kopeski L, Björgvinsson T

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Evidence concerning the effectiveness of yoga in partial hospital programs is limited. Yet, partial hospitals provide treatment at a critical juncture by bridging inpatient and outpatient care. The present study tested the effectiveness of a single-session group yoga intervention for short-term mood and psychiatric symptom change in participants attending a 1- to 2-week partial hospital program.
METHOD: Participants included 104 partial hospital patients who participated in the single-session yoga intervention and completed a measure of positive/negative affect before and after the group. Participants, as well as partial hospital patients who did not attend the yoga intervention (n = 438), completed measures of depression and anxiety symptoms at admission and discharge from the program. At discharge, they also rated their perceived improvement and the overall quality of the care they received.
RESULTS: Participants who attended the yoga intervention experienced significant improvements in positive and negative affect during the group. They did not show greater improvements in symptoms of anxiety or depression over the course of treatment compared to individuals who did not attend the group. Yoga intervention participants nonetheless gave higher ratings to the quality of the care they received.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Findings demonstrated that attending a single yoga session during partial hospitalization was associated with short-term mood benefits, and with enhanced overall perceptions of treatment. Further research is needed to determine the conditions under which participation in yoga during partial hospitalization could contribute to symptom change in this context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

PMID: 30407035 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

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