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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=mind-body therapies[MeSH Terms]
Updated: 8 min 59 sec ago

Effects of Virtual Reality-Based Exercise Imagery on Pain in Healthy Individuals.

8 min 59 sec ago
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Effects of Virtual Reality-Based Exercise Imagery on Pain in Healthy Individuals.

Biomed Res Int. 2019;2019:5021914

Authors: Hayashi K, Aono S, Shiro Y, Ushida T

Abstract
Objective: Virtual reality (VR) is an advanced technology that can be used to attenuate pain. The present study aimed to investigate which method was more effective for pain management: VR combined with exercise imagery or VR distraction.
Methods: Fifty-two healthy students participated in this randomized cross-over controlled trial. One VR-based task aimed to passively use the imagery of driving a car as a distraction intervention (the driving group), whereas the other VR-based task aimed to use exercise imagery (running) to actively engage the participants in movement (the running group). The mechanical pressure pain thresholds of the quadriceps and forearm and the heat pain threshold of the hand of each subject were measured before, during, and after each VR task. The differences between the values at each time point and the differences between the groups were analyzed.
Results: The pressure and heat pain thresholds were significantly greater during VR task than those before VR task in both driving and running groups. The changes in the pressure pain thresholds that occurred during VR task were significantly higher in the running group than in the driving group. The difference between groups gradually declined after VR task. Conversely, there was no significant difference in the changes in the heat pain thresholds between the groups both during VR task and after VR task.
Conclusions: VR combined with exercise imagery has a greater effect on pressure pain thresholds, but not heat pain thresholds, than VR distraction.

PMID: 31119173 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Effects of Meditation and Music-Listening on Blood Biomarkers of Cellular Aging and Alzheimer's Disease in Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: An Exploratory Randomized Clinical Trial.

8 min 59 sec ago
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Effects of Meditation and Music-Listening on Blood Biomarkers of Cellular Aging and Alzheimer's Disease in Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: An Exploratory Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Alzheimers Dis. 2018;66(3):947-970

Authors: Innes KE, Selfe TK, Brundage K, Montgomery C, Wen S, Kandati S, Bowles H, Khalsa DS, Huysmans Z

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Telomere length (TL), telomerase activity (TA), and plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) levels have emerged as possible predictors of cognitive decline and dementia.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the: 1) effects of two 12-week relaxation programs on TL, TA, and Aβ levels in adults with subjective cognitive decline; and 2) relationship of biomarker changes to those in cognitive function, psychosocial status, and quality of life (QOL).
METHODS: Participants were randomized to a 12-week Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) or music listening (ML) program and asked to practice 12 minutes/day. Plasma Aβ(38/40/42) and peripheral blood mononuclear cell TL and TA were measured at baseline and 3 months. Cognition, stress, sleep, mood, and QOL were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months.
RESULTS: Baseline blood samples were available for 53 participants (25 KK, 28 ML). The KK group showed significantly greater increases in Aβ40 than the ML group. TA rose in both groups, although increases were significant only among those with higher practice adherence and lower baseline TA. Changes in both TL and TA varied by their baseline values, with greater increases among participants with values ≤50th percentile (ps-interaction <0.006). Both groups improved in cognitive and psychosocial status (ps ≤0.05), with improvements in stress, mood, and QOL greater in the KK group. Rising Aβ levels were correlated with gains in cognitive function, mood, sleep, and QOL at both 3 and 6 months, associations that were particularly pronounced in the KK group. Increases in TL and TA were also correlated with improvements in certain cognitive and psychosocial measures.
CONCLUSION: Practice of simple mind-body therapies may alter plasma Aβ levels, TL, and TA. Biomarker increases were associated with improvements in cognitive function, sleep, mood, and QOL, suggesting potential functional relationships.

PMID: 30320574 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Efficacy of respiratory muscle training in weaning of mechanical ventilation in patients with mechanical ventilation for 48hours or more: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

8 min 59 sec ago
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Efficacy of respiratory muscle training in weaning of mechanical ventilation in patients with mechanical ventilation for 48hours or more: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

Med Intensiva. 2019 03;43(2):79-89

Authors: Sandoval Moreno LM, Casas Quiroga IC, Wilches Luna EC, García AF

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of respiratory muscular training in the weaning of mechanical ventilation and respiratory muscle strength in patients on mechanical ventilation of 48hours or more.
DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial of parallel groups, double-blind. Ambit: Intensive Care Unit of a IV level clinic in the city of Cali.
PATIENTS: 126 patients in mechanical ventilation for 48hours or more.
INTERVENTIONS: The experimental group received daily a respiratory muscle training program with treshold, adjusted to 50% of maximal inspiratory pressure, additional to standard care, conventional received standard care of respiratory physiotherapy. MAIN INTEREST VARIABLES: weaning of mechanical ventilation. Other variables evaluated: respiratory muscle strength, requirement of non-invasive mechanical ventilation and frequency of reintubation.
ANALYSIS: intention-to-treat analysis was performed with all variables evaluated and analysis stratified by sepsis condition.
RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in the median weaning time of the MV between the groups or in the probability of extubation between groups (HR: 0.82 95% CI: 0.55-1.20 P=.29). The maximum inspiratory pressure was increased in the experimental group on average 9.43 (17.48) cmsH20 and in the conventional 5.92 (11.90) cmsH20 (P=.48). The difference between the means of change in maximal inspiratory pressure was 0.46 (P=.83 95%CI -3.85 to -4.78).
CONCLUSIONS: respiratory muscle training did not demonstrate efficacy in the reduction of the weaning period of mechanical ventilation nor in the increase of respiratory muscle strength in the study population. Registered study at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02469064).

PMID: 29398169 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Factors Associated With Response to Biofeedback Therapy for Dyssynergic Defecation.

8 min 59 sec ago
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Factors Associated With Response to Biofeedback Therapy for Dyssynergic Defecation.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 05;16(5):715-721

Authors: Patcharatrakul T, Valestin J, Schmeltz A, Schulze K, Rao SSC

Abstract
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Biofeedback therapy is effective for dyssynergic defecation (DD), but it is not widely available or reimbursed, and is labor intensive. It is therefore important to select the appropriate patients for this treatment. We investigated symptoms and demographic, manometric, and other factors associated with outcomes of biofeedback therapy in patients with DD.
METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis of 2 prospective studies of biofeedback therapy in 127 adult outpatients (18-75 years old, 120 female) with chronic constipation who failed to respond to treatment with dietary fiber or laxatives (>1 year) and were diagnosed with DD based on standard criteria. In each study, patients received 1-hour, biweekly office biofeedback therapy (6 sessions) or home biofeedback therapy with a device. A therapist used visual feedback, postural, and diaphragmatic breathing techniques to teach subjects to improve defecation. Treatment success was defined by a composite of normalization of dyssynergia pattern and increase of 20 mm in baseline bowel satisfaction score. Factors were compared between the treatment success and failure groups. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed.
RESULTS: Of the 127 patients enrolled, 77 (61%) had treatment success. Dyssynergia was corrected in 78% of patients and bowel satisfaction improved in 64% of patients. Baseline demographic features, constipation symptoms, manometric and sensory parameters, balloon expulsion time, and colonic transit results were similar between treatment failure and success groups. Patients with lower baseline bowel satisfaction score (P = .008) and patients who used digital maneuvers (P = .04) were more likely to have successful biofeedback therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Biofeedback therapy is successful in more than 60% of patients with DD. Patients who used digital maneuvers and patients with lower baseline levels of bowel satisfaction were more likely to have treatment success, whereas other factors were not associated with success. Biofeedback therapy should be offered to all patients with DD, irrespective of baseline symptoms or anorectal physiology findings.

PMID: 29111136 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

The effects of Tai Chi on quality of life of cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Thu, 2019-11-14 09:39
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The effects of Tai Chi on quality of life of cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Support Care Cancer. 2019 Oct;27(10):3701-3716

Authors: Ni X, Chan RJ, Yates P, Hu W, Huang X, Lou Y

Abstract
PURPOSES: To assess the effects of Tai Chi on quality of life (QOL) of cancer survivors.
METHODS: The following databases were searched: PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, EBSCO (including MEDLINE, CINAHL, and other databases), ScienceDirect, CNKI, Wangfang Data, and CQVIP until April 25, 2018. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English or Chinese examining the effects of Tai Chi intervention for cancer survivors were included. The primary outcome was QOL; the secondary outcomes were limb function/muscular strength, immune function indicators, cancer-related fatigue (CRF), and sleep disturbance. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Results of RCTs were pooled with mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Quality of evidence for each outcome was assessed with the GRADE system.
RESULTS: Twenty-two RCTs were included in this review. Tai Chi improved the physical (SMD 0.34, 95%CI 0.09, 0.59) and mental health (SMD 0.60, 95%CI 0.12, 1.08) domains of quality of life. The intervention improved the limb/muscular function of breast cancer survivors (SMD 1.19, 95%CI 0.63, 1.75) and in mixed samples of cancer survivors reduced the levels of cortisol (MD - 0.09, 95%CI - 0.16, - 0.02), alleviated CRF (SMD - 0.37, 95%CI - 0.70, - 0.04), and promoted sleep (SMD - 0.37, 95%CI - 0.72, - 0.02).
CONCLUSION: There is low-level evidence suggesting that Tai Chi improves physical and mental dimensions of QOL and sleep. There is moderate-level evidence suggesting Tai Chi reduces levels of cortisol and CRF and improves limb function. Additional studies with larger sample sizes and with higher-quality RCT designs comparing different regimens of Tai Chi are warranted.

PMID: 31236699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions for improving erectile function and climacturia in men after prostatectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Thu, 2019-11-14 09:39
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Effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions for improving erectile function and climacturia in men after prostatectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Clin Rehabil. 2019 Aug;33(8):1298-1309

Authors: Kannan P, Winser SJ, Choi Ho L, Hei LC, Kin LC, Agnieszka GE, Jeffrey LH

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions for postprostatectomy erectile dysfunction and climacturia.
DATA SOURCES: Multiple databases were searched from database inception to February 2019.
REVIEW METHODS: Randomized controlled trials comparing physiotherapy interventions to control were included.
RESULTS: The search yielded 127 potentially relevant articles; seven met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Meta-analysis of two studies revealed a statistically significant effect of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) plus biofeedback compared to the no treatment control group for erectile function at the12-month follow-up period (risk ratio (RR) = 3.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-13.05; P = 0.05). Data from one small study (n = 31) identified a greater number of men reporting improved climacturia in the PFMT plus electrical stimulation group compared to the no treatment control group, and the overall effect was significant (RR = 15.60, 95% CI = 0.95-254.91; P = 0.05). Meta-analyses of two studies found no statistically significant differences between groups receiving PFMT and no treatment control for erectile function or climacturia at long-term follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: PFMT augmented with biofeedback improves erectile function after prostatectomy. Data from a single study found PFMT combined with electrical stimulation to be beneficial for postprostatectomy climacturia. However, electrical stimulation is recommended for terminally ill people only. The effect of PFMT alone on postprostatectomy erectile dysfunction and climacturia remains inconclusive. However, this is likely to be affected by the participant adherence and physiotherapy supervision. High-quality trials providing intensive supervision and due consideration of adherence factors are recommended.

PMID: 30983396 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Psychophysiological measurement of affective responses during speech perception.

Thu, 2019-11-14 09:39
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Psychophysiological measurement of affective responses during speech perception.

Hear Res. 2018 11;369:103-119

Authors: Francis AL, Oliver J

Abstract
When people make decisions about listening, such as whether to continue attending to a particular conversation or whether to wear their hearing aids to a particular restaurant, they do so on the basis of more than just their estimated performance. Recent research has highlighted the vital role of more subjective qualities such as effort, motivation, and fatigue. Here, we argue that the importance of these factors is largely mediated by a listener's emotional response to the listening challenge, and suggest that emotional responses to communication challenges may provide a crucial link between day-to-day communication stress and long-term health. We start by introducing some basic concepts from the study of emotion and affect. We then develop a conceptual framework to guide future research on this topic through examination of a variety of autonomic and peripheral physiological responses that have been employed to investigate both cognitive and affective phenomena related to challenging communication. We conclude by suggesting the need for further investigation of the links between communication difficulties, emotional response, and long-term health, and make some recommendations intended to guide future research on affective psychophysiology in speech communication.

PMID: 30135023 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Evaluation of artifact-corrected electroencephalographic (EEG) training: a pilot study.

Thu, 2019-11-14 09:39
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Evaluation of artifact-corrected electroencephalographic (EEG) training: a pilot study.

J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2018 07;125(7):1087-1097

Authors: La Marca JP, Cruz D, Fandino J, Cacciaguerra FR, Fresco JJ, Guerra AT

Abstract
This double-blind study examined the effect of electromyographical (EMG) artifacts, which contaminate electroencephalographical (EEG) signals, by comparing artifact-corrected (AC) and non-artifact-corrected (NAC) neurofeedback (NF) training procedures. 14 unmedicated college students were randomly assigned to two groups: AC (n = 7) or NAC (n = 7). Both groups received 12 sessions of NF and were trained using identical NF treatment protocols to reduce their theta/beta power ratios (TBPR). Outcomes on a continuous performance test revealed that the AC group had statistically significant increases across measures of auditory and visual attention. The NAC group showed smaller gains that only reached statistical significance on measures of visual attention. Only the AC group reduced their TBPR, the NAC group did not. AC NF appears to play an important role during training that leads to improvements in both auditory and visual attention. Additional research is required to confirm the results of this study.

PMID: 29582150 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Fit 4 surgery, a bespoke app with biofeedback delivers rehabilitation at home before and after elective lung resection.

Wed, 2019-11-13 12:36
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Fit 4 surgery, a bespoke app with biofeedback delivers rehabilitation at home before and after elective lung resection.

J Cardiothorac Surg. 2019 Jul 05;14(1):132

Authors: Kadiri SB, Kerr AP, Oswald NK, Budacan AM, Flanagan S, Golby C, Lightfoot S, Naidu B

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary rehabilitation programme for lung surgery patients can reduce the risk of post-operative complications but compliance to programmes can be limited by access to health care. We developed a home-based rehabilitation app and tested its feasibility in patients undergoing lung resection surgery.
METHODS: A cohort study was conducted over 18 months at a regional thoracic unit. The Fit 4 Surgery app included ten exercises. Patients were instructed to exercise for at least three minutes for each exercise. Data was transmitted back to the researchers remotely. Data was also collected from a contemporaneous group of surgery patients who attended local outpatient-based Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease rehabilitation classes. Quality of Life and outcomes data in the app group were collected. Patients were also interviewed about their experience of the app.
RESULTS: App patients had a shorter wait before surgery compared to patients attending rehabilitation classes (24 vs 45 days) but managed four times as many sessions (2 vs 9), improving incremental shuttle walk test distance by 99 ± 83 (p < 0.05) metres before surgery. Five themes were gathered from the interviews.
CONCLUSION: An app based programme of rehabilitation can be delivered in a timely fashion to lung surgery patients with demonstrable physiological benefits; this will need to be confirmed in further clinical trials.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN00061628. Registered 27 May 2011.

PMID: 31277671 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

The effect of stride length on lower extremity joint kinetics at various gait speeds.

Wed, 2019-11-13 12:36
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The effect of stride length on lower extremity joint kinetics at various gait speeds.

PLoS One. 2019;14(2):e0200862

Authors: McGrath RL, Ziegler ML, Pires-Fernandes M, Knarr BA, Higginson JS, Sergi F

Abstract
Robot-assisted training is a promising tool under development for improving walking function based on repetitive goal-oriented task practice. The challenges in developing the controllers for gait training devices that promote desired changes in gait is complicated by the limited understanding of the human response to robotic input. A possible method of controller formulation can be based on the principle of bio-inspiration, where a robot is controlled to apply the change in joint moment applied by human subjects when they achieve a gait feature of interest. However, it is currently unclear how lower extremity joint moments are modulated by even basic gait spatio-temporal parameters. In this study, we investigated how sagittal plane joint moments are affected by a factorial modulation of two important gait parameters: gait speed and stride length. We present the findings obtained from 20 healthy control subjects walking at various treadmill-imposed speeds and instructed to modulate stride length utilizing real-time visual feedback. Implementing a continuum analysis of inverse-dynamics derived joint moment profiles, we extracted the effects of gait speed and stride length on joint moment throughout the gait cycle. Moreover, we utilized a torque pulse approximation analysis to determine the timing and amplitude of torque pulses that approximate the difference in joint moment profiles between stride length conditions, at all gait speed conditions. Our results show that gait speed has a significant effect on the moment profiles in all joints considered, while stride length has more localized effects, with the main effect observed on the knee moment during stance, and smaller effects observed for the hip joint moment during swing and ankle moment during the loading response. Moreover, our study demonstrated that trailing limb angle, a parameter of interest in programs targeting propulsion at push-off, was significantly correlated with stride length. As such, our study has generated assistance strategies based on pulses of torque suitable for implementation via a wearable exoskeleton with the objective of modulating stride length, and other correlated variables such as trailing limb angle.

PMID: 30794565 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Slow cortical potentials neurofeedback in children with ADHD: comorbidity, self-regulation and clinical outcomes 6 months after treatment in a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

Wed, 2019-11-13 12:36
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Slow cortical potentials neurofeedback in children with ADHD: comorbidity, self-regulation and clinical outcomes 6 months after treatment in a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019 Aug;28(8):1087-1095

Authors: Aggensteiner PM, Brandeis D, Millenet S, Hohmann S, Ruckes C, Beuth S, Albrecht B, Schmitt G, Schermuly S, Wörz S, Gevensleben H, Freitag CM, Banaschewski T, Rothenberger A, Strehl U, Holtmann M

Abstract
Despite sizeable short-term effects of neurofeedback (NF) therapy on attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), longer-term clinical, comorbidity and self-regulation outcomes are less systematically studied. The aim of this largest NF follow-up to date was to evaluate these outcomes 6 months after NF compared to a semi-active control to disentangle specific from unspecific sustained effects. We performed a multicenter, randomized, parallel, controlled, clinical, superiority trial in five German university outpatient departments. Participants were eligible if they fulfilled DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD and were aged from 7 to 9 years. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1-ratio) to 25 sessions of slow cortical potential (SCP)-NF or electromyogram biofeedback (EMG-BF). Participants were not blinded, since they received instructions according to each treatment setting. Primary outcomes were parent ratings of ADHD. The trial was registered, number ISRCTN761871859. Both groups showed improvement of ADHD symptoms compared to baseline at 6-months follow-up with large effect sizes for SCP-NF (d = 1.04) and EMG-BF (d = 0.85), but without group differences. When analyzing all assessments (pre-test, post-test-1, post-test-2 and follow-up), a group-by-time interaction emerged (p = 0.0062), with SCP-NF showing stable improvement following treatment but EMG-BF showing a relapse from post-test-1 to post-test-2, and subsequent remission at follow-up. Six months after the end of treatment, improvement after SCP-NF remained large and stable. However, the lack of group differences at follow-up suggests shared specific and unspecific effects contributing to this clinical outcome. Our correlational results indicate specificity of SCP-NF for selected subscales after training, but not at follow-up.

PMID: 30610380 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

The Role of Hypnosis in Cancer Care.

Wed, 2019-11-13 12:36
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The Role of Hypnosis in Cancer Care.

Curr Oncol Rep. 2018 11 13;20(12):93

Authors: Carlson LE, Toivonen K, Flynn M, Deleemans J, Piedalue KA, Tolsdorf E, Subnis U

Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper reviews the current evidence-base for the use of hypnosis as an adjunct treatment for common cancer-related symptoms and side effects, including those experienced during treatment, as well as long-term and late effects. First, a general description and history of medical hypnosis in cancer care is provided, followed by a review of the latest evidence across a range of common symptoms.
RECENT FINDINGS: The evidence suggests that hypnosis may help treat symptoms of nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients, manage pain in a variety of contexts, and also reduce levels of anxiety and overall distress around surgical and medical procedures, both in children and adults. Emerging research shows promise for treating hot flashes in women with breast cancer. The research in this area would benefit from assessing populations beyond women with breast cancer, including late-stage disease, using more rigorous study designs, following published reporting guidelines and better describing and standardizing interventions.

PMID: 30421307 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Effectiveness of multisensory stimulation in managing neuropsychiatric symptoms in older adults with major neurocognitive disorder: a systematic review.

Wed, 2019-11-13 12:36
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Effectiveness of multisensory stimulation in managing neuropsychiatric symptoms in older adults with major neurocognitive disorder: a systematic review.

JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep. 2018 08;16(8):1663-1708

Authors: Silva R, Abrunheiro S, Cardoso D, Costa P, Couto F, Agrenha C, Apóstolo J

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the review was to synthesize the effectiveness of multisensory stimulation in managing neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in older adults with major neurocognitive disorder (NCD).
INTRODUCTION: Major neurocognitive disorder is characterized by changes in specific cognitive domains with a progressive deterioration in cognitive ability and capacity for independent living. Most older adults with this condition have one or more concomitant symptoms known as NPS. Evidence shows that nonpharmacological therapies have been effective in controlling these symptoms, with multisensory stimulation attracting further investigation.
INCLUSION CRITERIA: The review considered studies on older adults aged 65 years or over with major NCD. The intervention of interest was multisensory stimulation, and the comparator was usual care (e.g. no occupational therapy, no cognitive training, and no art therapy, but with possible control of activities such as looking at photographs or doing quizzes), or another intervention (e.g. occupational therapy, cognitive training and art therapy). Primary outcomes were NPS (agitation, aggression, motor disturbances, mood liability, anxiety, apathy, night-time behaviour, eating disorders, delusion and hallucination). Secondary outcomes were quality of life, functional status in activities of daily living, cognitive status and caregiver burden. Experimental study designs were considered.
METHODS: A broad range of keywords and a three-step search strategy were used to identify potentially eligible published and unpublished studies from January 1990 to June 2016 in major healthcare-related online databases. Studies in English, Spanish and Portuguese were included. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of eight included studies using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Checklists for Randomized Controlled Trials and Quasi-Experimental Studies. Data were extracted using the standardized data extraction tool from the JBI System for the Unified Management, Assessment and Review of Information (JBI SUMARI) and included details about the interventions, populations, study methods and outcomes of interest. Significant differences were found between participants, interventions, outcome measures (clinical heterogeneity), and designs (methodological heterogeneity). For these reasons, a meta-analysis could not be performed. Therefore, the results have been described in a narrative format.
RESULTS: Eight studies (seven randomized controlled trials and one quasi-experimental study) were included, with a total sample of 238 participants (pre-intervention). Four studies confirmed the effectiveness of multisensory stimulation in domains such as physically nonaggressive behavior, verbally agitated behavior and agitation. However, these effects did not always persist in the long-term. Six studies showed poorly consistent results on the effects of multisensory stimulation in improving mood, with only one displaying significant effects. Similarly, despite poor results, two studies showed benefits concerning anxiety. Participants reported significantly decreased levels of anxiety over the course of the intervention, and this improvement persisted in the long-term. In regard to functional status in activities of daily living, two studies reported an improvement in the short-term. Moreover, the effectiveness in cognitive domains such as memory and attention to surroundings also showed inconsistent results across the seven studies that analyzed this outcome. Two studies reflected an improvement during the intervention, but also reported a gradual decline in the long-term. Only one study observed significantly better results during the intervention that persisted until the follow-up assessment. Apathy, night-time behavior, eating disorders, delusion and hallucination were NPS that were not explored in the studies that met the criteria to be included in this review.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that multisensory stimulation could be an effective intervention for managing NPS in older adults with major NCD in a mild to severe stage, particularly for managing behavioral symptoms such as agitation. This research provides an indication of the likely effect of the multisensory stimulation on NPS such as agitation and anxiety, as well on cognitive status.

PMID: 30113550 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Positive effects of neurofeedback on autism symptoms correlate with brain activation during imitation and observation.

Wed, 2019-11-13 12:36
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Positive effects of neurofeedback on autism symptoms correlate with brain activation during imitation and observation.

Eur J Neurosci. 2018 03;47(6):579-591

Authors: Datko M, Pineda JA, Müller RA

Abstract
Autism has been characterized by atypical task-related brain activation and functional connections, coinciding with deficits in sociocommunicative abilities. However, evidence of the brain's experience-dependent plasticity suggests that abnormal activity patterns may be reversed with treatment. In particular, neurofeedback training (NFT), an intervention based on operant conditioning resulting in self-regulation of brain electrical oscillations, has shown increasing promise in addressing abnormalities in brain function and behavior. We examined the effects of ≥ 20 h of sensorimotor mu-rhythm-based NFT in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a matched control group of typically developing children (ages 8-17). During a functional magnetic resonance imaging imitation and observation task, the ASD group showed increased activation in regions of the human mirror neuron system following the NFT, as part of a significant interaction between group (ASD vs. controls) and training (pre- vs. post-training). These changes were positively correlated with behavioral improvements in the ASD participants, indicating that mu-rhythm NFT may be beneficial to individuals with ASD.

PMID: 28245068 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Rehabilitation.

Tue, 2019-11-12 06:32
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Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Rehabilitation.

Curr Sports Med Rep. 2019 Aug;18(8):283-284

Authors: Burton MS

PMID: 31389868 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Yoga and acupuncture versus "sham" treatments for menopausal hot flashes: how do they compare?

Tue, 2019-11-12 06:32
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Yoga and acupuncture versus "sham" treatments for menopausal hot flashes: how do they compare?

Menopause. 2019 04;26(4):337

Authors: McGuire A, Anderson D

PMID: 30920434 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Should We Meditate While We Wait?

Tue, 2019-11-12 06:32
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Should We Meditate While We Wait?

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2019 02;28(2):109-110

Authors: Robins JLW

PMID: 30668233 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

A Systematic Review of Psychological and Pharmacological Treatments for Adjustment Disorder in Adults.

Tue, 2019-11-12 06:32
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A Systematic Review of Psychological and Pharmacological Treatments for Adjustment Disorder in Adults.

J Trauma Stress. 2018 06;31(3):321-331

Authors: O'Donnell ML, Metcalf O, Watson L, Phelps A, Varker T

Abstract
Adjustment disorder is a common psychiatric disorder, yet knowledge of the efficacious treatments for adjustment disorder is limited. In this systematic review, we aimed to examine psychological and pharmacological interventions that target adjustment disorder in adults to determine which interventions have the best evidence for improving adjustment disorder symptoms. We performed database searches for literature published between January 1980 and September 2016 and identified studies that included both a sample majority of individuals diagnosed with adjustment disorder and findings on adjustment disorder symptom outcomes. There were 29 studies that met the inclusion criteria for qualitative synthesis; the majority of studies (59%) investigated psychological therapies rather than pharmacological treatments (35%). The range of psychological therapies tested was diverse, with the majority containing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) components (53%), followed by three studies that were psychodynamic-related, three studies that were behavioral therapy-based, and two studies that involved relaxation techniques. We rated individual studies using a modified National Health and Medical Research Council quality and bias checklist and then used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE; Grade Working Group, 2004) system to rate the overall quality of the evidence. Despite several randomized controlled trials, the quality of the evidence for positive effects of all psychological and pharmacological treatments on symptoms of adjustment disorder was ranked as low to very low. Future high-quality research in the treatment of adjustment disorder has the potential to make a significant difference to individuals who struggle to recover after stressful events.

PMID: 29958336 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Inspiratory muscle training reduces diaphragm activation and dyspnea during exercise in COPD.

Tue, 2019-11-12 06:32
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Inspiratory muscle training reduces diaphragm activation and dyspnea during exercise in COPD.

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2018 08 01;125(2):381-392

Authors: Langer D, Ciavaglia C, Faisal A, Webb KA, Neder JA, Gosselink R, Dacha S, Topalovic M, Ivanova A, O'Donnell DE

Abstract
Among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), those with the lowest maximal inspiratory pressures experience greater breathing discomfort (dyspnea) during exercise. In such individuals, inspiratory muscle training (IMT) may be associated with improvement of dyspnea, but the mechanisms for this are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to identify physiological mechanisms of improvement in dyspnea and exercise endurance following inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in patients with COPD and low maximal inspiratory pressure (Pimax). The effects of 8 wk of controlled IMT on respiratory muscle function, dyspnea, respiratory mechanics, and diaphragm electromyography (EMGdi) during constant work rate cycle exercise were evaluated in patients with activity-related dyspnea (baseline dyspnea index <9). Subjects were randomized to either IMT or a sham training control group ( n = 10 each). Twenty subjects (FEV1 = 47 ± 19% predicted; Pimax  = -59 ± 14 cmH2O; cycle ergometer peak work rate = 47 ± 21% predicted) completed the study; groups had comparable baseline lung function, respiratory muscle strength, activity-related dyspnea, and exercise capacity. IMT, compared with control, was associated with greater increases in inspiratory muscle strength and endurance, with attendant improvements in exertional dyspnea and exercise endurance time (all P < 0.05). After IMT, EMGdi expressed relative to its maximum (EMGdi/EMGdimax) decreased ( P < 0.05) with no significant change in ventilation, tidal inspiratory pressures, breathing pattern, or operating lung volumes during exercise. In conclusion, IMT improved inspiratory muscle strength and endurance in mechanically compromised patients with COPD and low Pimax. The attendant reduction in EMGdi/EMGdimax helped explain the decrease in perceived respiratory discomfort despite sustained high ventilation and intrinsic mechanical loading over a longer exercise duration. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In patients with COPD and low maximal inspiratory pressures, inspiratory muscle training (IMT) may be associated with improvement of dyspnea, but the mechanisms for this are poorly understood. This study showed that 8 wk of home-based, partially supervised IMT improved respiratory muscle strength and endurance, dyspnea, and exercise endurance. Dyspnea relief occurred in conjunction with a reduced activation of the diaphragm relative to maximum in the absence of significant changes in ventilation, breathing pattern, and operating lung volumes.

PMID: 29543134 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

Immediate Effect of Slow Deep Breathing Exercise on Blood Pressure and Reaction Time.

Sat, 2019-11-09 15:27
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Immediate Effect of Slow Deep Breathing Exercise on Blood Pressure and Reaction Time.

Mymensingh Med J. 2019 Oct;28(4):925-929

Authors: Manandhar SA, Pramanik T

Abstract
Blood pressure in our body is finely regulated through autonomic nervous system and cardiac centers and studies established that parasympathetic dominance exerted by slow deep breathing decreases blood pressure. Reaction time is an estimate of the subject's capacity for inhibiting pre-potent motor responses. Decreased reaction time indicates greater alertness, faster information processing and less distractibility. Nevertheless, there has been conflicting results about the effect of deep slow breathing on reaction time The present research targeted a community based cross sectional observational study (n=80, age=17-70 years) performed in Lalitpur Municipality, Ward number-14, Nepal from May 2019 to June 2019, to observe the immediate effect of slow deep breathing exercise on blood pressure and reaction time by using online visual reaction time test. Volunteers performed the slow breathing exercise (approximately 4seconds inhalation and 6 seconds exhalation) in Sukhasana for 5 minutes. Base-line and post-slow-breathing blood pressure and visual reaction time was recorded and compared. Decrease in systolic and diastolic pressure was recorded in all, but statistically insignificant. Among the whole study population, significant decrease (p<0.001) in reaction time was noted (90.35±13.96 msVs 76.68±9.90 ms). Among male subjects of age-group 17-28 years, and 50-70 years, significant decrease in reaction time was noted (p<0.05) whereas, among the female subjects of all age groups, reaction time decreased significantly (p<0.05). Decrease in reaction time signifies improved central neuronal processing activity. This may be due to greater arousal, faster information processing, and ability to ignore or inhibit extraneous stimuli. Hence, regular practice of slow deep breathing exercise may be beneficial to lower blood pressure and to improve concentration.

PMID: 31599262 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Categories: Mind Body Medicine

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